"Animal Husbandry" Editorial Board Instructions
 

 "Animal Husbandry", 2010 Vol. 56 (Summaries)

 
ISSN 1392–6144
Animal Husbandry: Scientific Articles. 2010. 56. P. 4-11

UDK 664.9

THE CONTENT OF BENZO(A)PYRENE IN SMOKED FISH AND MEAT PRODUCTS

Jânis Mičulis1, Anda Valdovska2, Astrîda Đahta2, Jânis Zutis3, Ligita Plotina1

1Research Institute of Biotechnology and Veterinary Medicine ”Sigra” of Latvia University of Agriculture, Instituta str. 1, LV-2150 Sigulda, Latvia; e-mail: sigra@lis.lv
2 Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Latvian University of Agriculture,
K. Helmana str. 8, LV – 3004 Jelgava, Latvia, e-mail: Anda.Valdovska@llu.lv
3Meat and Milk Industry Engineering Centre, Dzirnavu str. 42, LV-1010 Riga, Latvia; e-mail: gpric@snmail.lv

ABSTRACT

The contents of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) from 9 samples of industrially smoked
different meat products and 24 samples of traditionally and industrially smoked
fish products were analysed. The results were summarized and compared with the
maximum acceptable levels set by the European Commission Regulation (EC) No
1881/2006. The BaP content of industrially smoked meat products were below the
EU maximum limit of 5 μg kg-1 in smoked meat products, however also relatively
high BaP content at the level of 4.05 μg kg-1 was found in breakfast ham.
The analysis of smoked fish products showed that the level of BaP in traditionally
smoked fish products is higher in comparison with industrially smoked fish
products. However, the data show that BaP content in 75 % of smoked herring
and in all analyzed samples of smoked sprats in oil exceed the EU maximum
limit of 5 μg kg-1. The influence of pine cone addition to fuel was analysed and
the contents of BaP were determined. The results showed that traditional fish
smoking with added cones increased BaP content on average about 17 %.
Key words: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), benzo(a)pyrene, smoked
fish, smoked meat, Latvia

 


ISSN 1392-6144
Animal Husbandry: Scientific Articles. 2010. 56. P. 12-20

UDK 636.085

NEW HERMETIC MATERIAL FOR SILAGE QUALITY IMPROVING

Baiba Osmane, Inara-Helena Konosonoka, Biruta Lujane

Institute of Biotechnology and Veterinary Medicine „Sigra” of Latvia University of Agriculture, Instituta street 1, LV-2150 Sigulda, Latvia; e-mail: sigra@lis.lv

ABSTRACT

There is a lot of current interest in the factors affecting the development of moulds
and mycotoxins in stored animal feeds because of the risks posed by mycotoxins
to animal and human health. The factors include the epiphytic microflora on the
crop at harvest, crop dry matter concentration, oxygen levels in the silo during
the initial aerobic phase, density of silage and oxygen ingress during the storage
and feed-out periods. Silostop is a new oxygen barrier film for covering bunkers,
trenches, and clamps of silage.
Experimentally ensiled silage upper layer (30 cm depth) had less losses
(silage losses on average 1.7 :100 t on 1700 t) in hermetization variant when the
silage is covered with a single layer of Silostop 45 micron thickness clear oxygen
barrier film and with a single layer of Silostop anti - UV net., in comparison with
the control variant - the silage is covered with a single layer of conventional 150
micron thickness white of black polyethylene film. The essentially better average
data of quality (biochemical and microbiological) of silage upper layer (30 cm)
samples were obtained for experimental variant where ensiling mass was covered
with single layer of Silostop 45 micron thickness clear oxygen barrier film and
with a single layer of Silostop anti - UV net., in comparison with control variant
- silage is covered with single layer of convencional 150 micron thickness white
on black polyethylene film.
Key words: silage quality, new technology, silostop

 

ISSN 1392-6144
Animal Husbandry: Scientific Articles. 2010. 56. P. 21-28

UDK 636.085

Effect of concentrated feed extrusion on chemical, microbiological changes and zootechnical-economic characteristics

Aiga Trupa, Anita Siliňa, Eriks Kreituzis

Institute of Agrobiotechnology of Latvia University of Agriculture, Lielâ iela 2, Jelgava, LV-3001, Latvia, e-mail: aiga.trupa@llu.lv
Joint stock company “Tukuma Straume”, Tukums district, LV-3139, Latvia, e-mail:
straume2005@inbox.lv
Peasant facility “Űdri” Limbazi district, LV- 4052, Latvia, e-mail: mara81@inbox.lv

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to investigate the extrusion of the concentrated feed on
the chemical and microbiological changes, zootechnical and economic effects on
dairy cow feeding. Latvian Brown cows were used in the study and allotted into
two groups according to the analogue principle (n=2×50). lactation dairy cows
were included in the trial in the initial lactation phase with the average milk yield
of 30.73 kg per day, fat content 3.92 % and 3.16 % protein content in milk. The
differences between the trial and control group were that for the trial group of
cows the feed was composed of extruded barley and wheat grains while for the
control group of cows unprocessed grain was used.
During the extrusion process, the protein content decreased, including all the
amino acids, but the amount of glucose in the grain increased at the expense of
starch hydrolysis.
The extrusion process was powerful enough to almost completely, i.e., on
99.9 %, reduce the total quantity of bacteria in grain, to halve the number of
mould and to completely destroy yeast bacteria populations in grain samples.
Within 150 days of study, milk yield in the experimental group of cows was
approximately 0.91 to 1.27 kg higher than that in the control group of cows.
In addition, the difference in yield in favor of the experimental cows showed a
tendency to increase.
The economic effectiveness of feeding out the extruded grain was positive.
Each experimental group of cows, which was fed on the extruded grain, despite
22
the relatively high cost of extrusion, gave on 8.58 LVL higher milk output than
their counterparts in the control group.
Key words: dairy cows, extruded grain, productivity, costs

 

ISSN 1392-6144
Animal Husbandry: Scientific Articles. 2010. 56. P. 29-36

UDK 636.084

The economic EFFICIENCY OF RAPESEED oil cake in THE RATIONS OF farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus) IN WINTER

Liga Proskina, Aleksandrs Jemeljanovs, Ira Irena Vitina, Vera Krastina, Biruta Lujane

Research Institute of Biotechnology and Veterinary Medicine “Sigra” of Latvia University of Agriculture, Instituta str. 1, Sigulda, Latvia, LV-2150, e-mail: sigra@lis.lv

ABSTRACT

The study was carried out to determine the effects of feeding rapeseed oil cake
to farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus) over the winter period thus replacing the
traditional ration of rolled grain of the equivalent feed value. It was found that
rapeseed oil cake ration of 0.2 kg per day per animal over the winter period
increased the dressing percentage by 4.43 % in comparison with the control
group and increased the level of fatty acids n-3 by 11.28 %, n-6 fatty acids by
15.13 % of the total lipids in meat. The amount of the total feed consumed in
the experimental group decreased by 3.2 % per animal and the feed costs were
lower by 8.13 % in comparison with the control group. From the data obtained
it can be concluded that the use of rapeseed cake in feeding of farmed red deer
is economically cost-effective. Feeding 0.2 kg of rapeseed cake per deer per day,
the delivered meat yield from an animal increased on the average by 4.85 % or
15.50 LVL in comparison with the control group.
Key words: deer, rapeseed oil cake, meat quality, economy

 

ISSN 1392–6144
Gyvulininkystë. Mokslo darbai. 2010. 56. P. 37-44

UDK 636.9.084

Evaluation of fatty acid composition of deer (Cervus elaphus) meat PRODUCED ON Latvia farms and wildlife

Vita Strazdina, Aleksandrs Jemeljanovs, Vita Sterna, Unigunde Antone

Research institute of Biotechnology and Veterinary medicine „Sigra” of Latvia University of Agriculture, Institute str. 1, Sigulda, LV 2150, Latvia, e-mail: sigra@lis.lv

ABSTRACT

The diversity of species grown under organic farming system has recently
expanded. Beside beef and ostriches, deer are becoming more popular, however
investigations in this area are insufficient. Wild and farm deer meat could be
of different meat composition. Therefore, the aim of the investigation was to
compare the biochemical composition of farm deer meat with wild deer meat and
beef produced under organic production system in Latvia.
The investigations were carried out in different regions of Latvia. Welfare
requirements were ensured in these farms – free keeping of suckling cows, non
restricted feeding and watering of animals, sufficient pastures and walk ensurance
and providing feed organic origin. In the studied samples protein, intramuscular
fat, fatty acids and cholesterol were determined. The chemical analyses of 30
samples were done. The results of analysis showed that the meat samples from wild
deer had higher protein 23.59 %, significantly lower fat content 1.23 % (p<0.05),
lower sum of saturated fatty acids 33.1 % and higher sum of polyunsaturated
fatty acids 38.8 % in comparison with the farm deer meat samples and beef. The
contents of saturated fatty acids in the meat samples of farm deer and beef were
40.9 % and 40.1 %, the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids 26.4 % and 15.4
%, respectively. The content of cholesterol was similar in the meat samples from
different species – wild deer meat samples had 70.57; farm deer 74.23, but beef
samples had 76.31 mg 100 g-1.
Key words: game meat, fat composition, farm deer, beef, dietetic product

 


ISSN 1392-6144
Animal Husbandry: Scientific Articles. 2010. 56. P. 45-54

UDK 636.4.085

THE INFLUENCE OF PHYTOGENIC ADDITIVES ON PIG PRODUCTIVITY, CARCASES AND MEAT QUALITY

Imants Jansons, Aleksandrs Jemeljanovs


Research Institute of Biotechnology and Veterinary Medicine “Sigra” of Latvia University of Agriculture, Instituta st. 1, Sigulda, Latvia, LV 2150, e-mail: sigra@lis.lv

Abstract

The study was conducted to determine the efficiency of a new phytogenic additive
on the growth process, carcases and meat quality. The phytogenic additive
contained ground thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) leafs, nettle (Urtica dioica L.) leafs,
oak (Quercus robur L.) cortex, balm (Melissa officinalis L.) leafs. The feeding
trial was carried out with Landrase pigs (n=30). The pigs of the control group
were fed without the phytogenic additive. The feed of the trial group contained
1 % phytogenic additive per tonne feed used for pigs from 42 to 78 days of age,
0.5 % per tonne feed from 78 to 170 days of age. The study indicated that the
average daily gain for the trial group was 0.777±0.009 kg, or by 12.0 % higher
than that in the control group of pigs (p<0.05). Feed conversion in the trial group
was 8.1 % lower than in the control group. Phytogenic additives improved the
carcases and meat quality. Lean meat content in the trial group was 53.41 %
or by 2.7 % higher than in the control group. The biochemical analysis of meat
samples (m. longissimus lumborum) showed that the intramuscular fat content in
the control group was 2.38 %, and in the trial group it was by 0.31 % lower. The
cholesterol content was 9.2 % lower in the trial group. The indices of tryptophan
and methionine ratio were by 20 % higher in the trial group (p<0.05). Water
holding capacity in the muscle samples from the trial group was 2.6 % higher
than in the control group.
Key words: pigs, phytogenic additive, meat quality

 

ISSN 1392–6144
Animal Husbandry: Scientific Articles. 2010. 56. P. 55-63

UDK 636.4. 085

EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT FEED MIXTURES FOR FATTENING PIGS

Lilija Degola, Ineta Renare


Institute of Agrobiotechnology, Latvia University of Agriculture,
Liela str. 2, LV 3001, Jelgava, Latvia; e-mail: Lilija.Degola@llu.lv

ABSTRACT

Five granulated full value feed mixtures were used for pig feeding: grower,
finisher, feed for fattening pigs with the liveweight 25-55 kg, feed for fattening
pigs with the liveweight 55-100 kg and feed for fattening pigs with the liveweight
30-105 kg. The study was conducted in two experiments. In the first experiment -
more efficient and cost-effective was the feed mixture for fattening pigs with the
liveweight 25-55 kg in the first fattening period. Daily live weight gains of pigs
were 783 g, 18 % higher than in the control group. In the second fattening period,
more efficient and cost-effective was the finisher feed. Daily live weight gains of
pigs were 797 g or 13 % higher. In the second experiment - more efficient and
cost-effective was the feed mixture for fattening pigs with the liveweight 30-105 kg
in both fattening periods. Daily live weight gains of pigs were, respectively, 799
g, 859 g or 14 % and 9 % higher than those in the control group. The comparison
of the feed costs and expenses on the live weight gains of pigs in both experiments
showed, that in the first fattening period feed mixture for fattening pigs with the
liveweight 25-55 kg was economically advantageous. In the second fattening
period finisher feed was economically profitable.
Key words: fattening pigs, feed, mixtures, liveweight, feed costs

 

ISSN 1392–6144
Animal Husbandry: Scientific Articles. 2010. 56. P. 64-74

UDK 636.3.084

INTERACTION BETWEEN GOAT NUTRITION AND MEAT COMPOSITION

Elita Selegovska, Jazeps Spruzs


Institute of Agrobiotechnology Latvia University of Agriculture,
Liela str. 2, Jelgava, Latvia LV 3001; e-mail: elita.selegovska@llu.lv

ABSTRACT

Meat is the primary reason to raise goats, which is why meat goats constitute the
majority of the world’s goat production systems. Goat meat is lower in calories,
total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol, than traditional meats. The effect of breedtype
and diet on goat carcass characteristics has been investigated in only a
limited number of studies. We have assessed the influence of special concentrated
feed for calves (CFC) and concentrated feed for goats and sheep (CFGS) on goat
meat productivity and quality indices, and made recommendation for feeding of
goat kids and production of meat. The trial period lasted for 167 days, meat
samples were analyzed at the laboratory of the Research Institute of Biotechnology
and Veterinary Medicine “Sigra”. The dietary treatment resulted in that the live
weight of goat kids that received CFC was about 7.5 % higher at the end of the
trial than that of goat kids that received CFGS. However, CFGS group kid meat
showed lower dry matter content by 3.4 %, and crude protein, crude fat and crude
ash content in meat was higher respectively by 3.0 %, 20.8 % and 16.4 %. The
meat from CFGS group was richer in copper, zinc and magnesium respectively by
6.4 %, 21.4 % and 11.2 % compared to the meat of kids from CFC group. Meat
pH in both groups was 5.3, which is a very good index and showed that animal
was not affected by the stress. In the analyzed kid meat samples, the cholesterol
level ranged from 77.09 to 77.68 mg % but the cholesterol content of the kid
liver samples ranged from 223.21 to 241.04 mg %. Higher live weight gains and
carcass weight were reached with CFC feeding, but higher livestock output and
higher meat quality were when feeding the kids with a special concentrated feed
CFGS.
Key words: goat meat, nutrition, chemical composition

 

ISSN 1392–6144
Animal Husbandry: Scientific Articles. 2010. 56. P. 75-84

UDK 636.5.084

Economic Profitability of Innovative Composition Broiler Chicken Meat Production in Latvia

Sallija Cerina, Vera Krastina, Ira Irena Vitina


Research Institute of Biotechnology and Veterinary Medicine “Sigra“ of Latvia University of Agriculture, Instituta str. 1, Sigulda, Latvia, LV-2150, e-mail: sigra@lis.lv

ABSTRACT

Innovative composition of broiler chicken meat, in comparison with the
commercial mass production, contains higher levels of omega-6 (n-6) and
omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and carotenoid complex which positively influences
human health and prevents risk factors that cause different diseases. The aim
of investigations was to evaluate the possibility to obtain broiler chicken meat
of the innovative composition, and to evaluate the expenses of production in
bioeconomic aspects by using feed that contains an increased amount of n-6
and n-3 fatty acids. The feeding trial was carried out with the cross Ross 308
broiler chicken at the age from 1 to 42 days (n=300). It was concluded that the
best combination in broiler chicken feed for producing innovative composition
meat is 1 % flax seed oil, 1 % rapeseed oil and 2 % soyabean oil. By using the
mentioned oil composition, broiler chicken meat contained the amount of n-6
fatty acids 27.4 %, n-3 fatty acids 8.3 % of total lipids; it is by 3.9 % and 3.2 %
higher in comparison with commercial mass production. metabolic processes in
the poultry organism are essential factors that determine the carry over levels of
fatty acids and carotenoids in meat, and it is impossible to evaluate and calculate
these physiological processes in organisms exactly economically.
In the trial the expenses of feed consumption per 1000 broiler chicken
breeding were by 6.28 % higher than the use of commercial feed. The live weight
of broiler chickens was higher by 7.87 % in comparison with the commercial
production. The economic calculations of the possible economic profitability of
broiler chicken meat production per1000 broilers were by 15 % higher in case of
innovative composition of broiler chicken meat production.
Key words: broiler chicken meat, fatty acids, expenses