Animal Husbandry. Scientific Articles, 2004, 45, p. 3-14
TWO-WAY (LITHUANIAN INDIGENOUS X DANISH LANDRACE) AND THREE-WAY (LITHUANIAN
INDIGENOUS X SWEDISH YORKSHIRE X NORWEGIAN LANDRACE) CROSSING OF PIGS
A study was conducted to determine the efficiency of two-way (Lithuanian
indigenous x Danish landrace) and three-way (Lithuanian indigenous x Swedish
Yorkshire x Norwegian Landrace) crossing of pigs. The sows in the experimental
groups were inseminated with landrace semen and those in the control group were
mated with indigenous boars, therefore, the litter size of crossbred piglets in
both groups was lower than that of purebred piglets. Three-way crossbred piglets
weighed at birth 0.1 kg (P < 0.010) more compared with purebred indigenous and
two-way crossbred piglets and grew most intensively till 3 weeks of age, however,
at 2 months of age three-way crossbred weighed 3.1 kg (P < 0.001) more than
purebreds but 2.5 kg (P < 0.001) less than two-way crossbred pigs. Fattening
performance resulted in 109.5 and 126.5 g (P < 0.001) higher average daily gains
of, respectively, two-way and there-way crossbred pigs and intake of 0.5 and
0.61 GU (P < 0.001) less per kg gain in comparison with purebred pigs.
Both two-way and three-way crossing of indigenous pigs resulted not only in
higher carcass quality but also in considerably higher number of more lean
carcasses. The average backfat depth behind the last rib and loin lean area of
two-way and three-way crossbred pigs were, respectively, 7.8 and 6.8 mm (P <
0.001) lower and 6.5 and 5.3 cm2 (P < 0.001) greater in comparison with purebred
pigs. Only 2% of Lithuanian indigenous pigs had backfat thickness behind the
last rib of only 20 mm, while the corresponding percentage of two-way and three-way
crossbred pigs was 42.9 and 54.2%.
Key words: terminal crossing, carcass, backfat depth.
Animal Husbandry. Scientific Articles, 2004, 45, p. 15-23
GENETIC STRUCTURE AND VARIATION BETWEEN THE LINES OF HEAVY-TYPE ŽEMAITUKAI
Rūta Šveistienė, Virginija Jatkauskienė
The objective of our study was to examine the genetic differences and genetic
variation between the lines of heavy-type Žemaitukai horses. The main study was
conducted in 1996-2003 at LVA Institute of Animal Science. The pedigree, gene
frequencies of blood group and serum protein markers, homozygosity, and genetic
similarities was analysed from 83 horses. The genetic analysis of alleles
indicated that AlAB genotype was dominant of heavy-type žemaitukai, genotype
TfFF, Fo were also frequent. The alleles Ddghm, Dcgm, Ddk, Ddl in blood group
system were also frequent. The frequency of alleles Ddk and EsII of Kalmanas
line was distinguishing feature and statistical reliable (P < 0.01) from other
lines. Horses of Kalmanas line have the highest degree of homozygosity Ca =
46.15%. The higher genetic similarities were detected between Šachtioras II 235
and North Swedish stallion Klintas line (r = 0.914), 84% horses of the
Šachtioras II 235 stallion line have North Swedish horse blood.
Key words: horse, line, allele, blood group, serum protein, polymorphism, gene
frequency, genetic similarity.
Animal Husbandry. Scientific Articles, 2004, 45, p. 24-30
STUDIES OF THE GENETIC DISTANCE AND GENETIC IDENTITY OF DOMESTIC GALLINACEOUS
Robertas Juodka, Dalius Butkauskas, Aniolas Sruoga, Vaida Tubelytė–Kirdienė,
Elena Mozalienė, Algimantas Paulauskas
A study was conducted to determine the coefficients of genetic identity and
genetic distance according to Net between three gallinaceous species – hens,
turkeys, and quails – on the basis of the allelic frequency of non-specific
blood serum proteins.
The highest coefficient of genetic similarity and the shortest genetic distance
were observed between the populations of turkeys and quails. The cluster
analysis indicated that turkeys and quails have higher genetic similarity in
comparison with hens.
Key words: hens, turkeys, quails, allelic frequency, heterozygosis, genetic
similarity, phyllogenetic ties.
Animal Husbandry. Scientific Articles, 2004, 45, p. 31-39
BOVINE OOCYTE VIABILITY UNDER MODIFIED MATURATION CONDITIONS AND FREEZING BY
Rasa Nainienė, Algirdas Urbšys, Jonas Kutra, Vidmantas Pileckas, Artūras
A study was conducted to determine the effect of maturation conditions on the
post thaw viability of bovine oocytes frozen by the method of vitrification. The
study indicated that there was a positive effect of cumulus cells on oocyte
maturation and fertilization. The numbers of mature and fertilized oocytes were,
respectively, 3.4 and 25.1% higher for the cumulus cultured oocytes. Cumulus
cells also positively affected the postthaw viability of the oocytes after
vitrification: 35 oocytes out of 68 frozen with cumulus matured successfully
(51.5%) and 20 oocytes out of 35 fecundated (29.4%). Removal of cumulus cells
has resulted in 22.9% lower maturation and 12.3% lower fertilization of the
The study of the influence of the oocyte maturation length on the oocyte
freezing by vitrification indicated that 12 and 24 hour maturation prior to
freezing resulted in, respectively, 37.3 and 40% fertilization of the oocytes.
The study indicated that equilibrium media that were prepared using Dulbeco's
solution or TCM-199 had no significant influence on oocyte viability:
respectively 34 oocytes out 82 (41.5%) and 27 oocytes out of 68 (39.7%) had
developed successfully after thawing.
Key words: oocytes, vitrification, viability, maturation, cumulus.
Animal Husbandry. Scientific Articles, 2004, 45, p. 40-50
FERMENTATION OF NITROGENOUS MATTER AND CARBOHYDRATES IN THE RUMEN OF CATTLE
FED SUGARBEET PULP SILAGE
Saulius Bliznikas, Petras Bendikas, Vytautas Tarvydas, Virginijus Uchockis
Two analogous groups of lactating cows (n=10 per group) and fattening cattle (
n=12 per group) were used in a feeding trial that was carried out on the
Experimental farm and Analytical Laboratory of the Lithuanian Institute of
Animal Science in 2001–2002. During the experimental period, cows in the control
group were given hay, maize silage ad libitum and compound feed. Part of maize
silage (60%) was replaced with sugarbeet pulp silage in the diets for
experimental cows. Fattening cattle in the control group were offered hay, maize
silage ad libitum and 2,5 kg of compound feed. Maize silage in the diet of
experimental fattening cattle was completely replaced by sugarbeet pulp silage
and the amount of compound feed reduced to 1,5 kg. The purpose of the present
study was to determine the fermentation preculiarities of nitrogenous matter and
carbohydrates in the rumen of cattle fed sugarbeet pulp silage in place of maize
The results from the study indicated that cattle feeding with sugarbeet pulp
silage that was partially or completely replacing maize silage in the diet
resulted in favourable conditions for the growth and development of protozoa in
the rumen. 60% maize silage replacement with sugarbeet pulp silage in the diets
for lactating cows resulted in by 83,24% (P< 0,025) higher infusoria count.
Complete replacement of maize silage with sugarbeet pulp silage in the diets for
fattening cattle resulted in by even 135,87% (P< 0,005) higher infusoria count.
Sugarbeet pulp silage had affected fermentation of nitrogenous matter in the
rumen. The concentration of total (10,93%) and protein (22,71%) nitrogen
increased and that of ammonia nitrogen decreased by 70,30% (P< 0,005) in the
rumen contents of lactating cows. The same tendences were observed for the rumen
contents of fattening cattle: the concentration of total and protein nitrogen
increased, respectively, 8,50% (P< 0,05) and 15,54% (P< 0,025) and that ammonia
nitrogen decreased by 76,22% (P< 0,001). The pH-value in the rumen contents
decreased, respectively, 0,46 unit (P< 0,005) for lactating cows and 0,22 unit
for fattening cattle. Highly decreased concentration of ammonia nitrogen
restricted VFA production in the rumen contents. VFA concentration decreased by
16,30%, and 12,95% (P< 0,025) in, respectively, the rumen contents of lactating
cows and fattening cattle. The altered VFA ratio met the body requirements of
this age group. The amount of acetic acid increased 4,04% and that butyric acid
decreased 2,61% in the rumen contents of lactating cows. In the rumen contents
of fattening cattle, the amount of acetic acid decreased 3,28%% (P< 0,025) and
that of propionic acid increased 3,76% (P< 0,025).
Keywords: sugarbeet pulp silage, lactating cows, fattening cattle, fermentation,
Animal Husbandry. Scientific Articles, 2004, 45, p. 51-57
USE OF PROBIOTICS YEASTURE AND BIO PLUS 2B IN THE FEED FOR CHICKEN BROILERS
Inga Kepalienė, Diana Gudavičiūtė, Ramunė Sabalionytė, Danius Vencius, Vytautas
The researches were carried out in the Research Laboratory of Biological
Diversity and Technologies, Vilnius Pedagogical University and on the poultry
farm “Vilniaus paukštynas”. The object of the researches – Ross four line
combination chicken broilers.
The possibilities of usage in the feed and influence on the growth of chicken
broilers of probiotic preparations Yeasture (producer "Cenzone", USA) and Bio
Plus 2B (producer "Biochem", Denmark) were analysed. Under the influence of
probiotics Yeasture and Bio Plus 2B at the age of 42 day the chicken broilers
live weight was bigger by 1.49% and 2.66% compared with the control group and an
average daily weight gain was correspondingly bigger by 1.4% and 2.62%. The
amount of feed for 1 kg of live weight gain decreased by 5.38% (Yeasture) and
6.46% (Bio Plus 2B) compared to the control group. Probiotic Bio Plus 2B had
better influence on the growth of chicken broilers than probiotic Yeasture.
Keywords: probiotics, chicken broilers, growth.
Animal Husbandry. Scientific Articles, 2004, 45, p. 58-70
OCCURRENCE OF TOXIC MOULD FUNGI AND MYCOTOXINS IN THE GRAIN OF MAIZE GROWN
Audronė Mankevičienė, Ona Auškalnienė
Grain fungal infection of various maize hybrids was investigated at wax and
physiological maturity stages at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in
2003. The grain of 7 maize hybrids (28 samples), harvested at wax maturity stage
and of 10 maize hybrids (48 samples) harvested at physiological maturity stage
were analysed. Fusarium, Alternaria, Penicillium, Acremonium, Cladosporium
and other fungal genera were identified in grain. Both at wax and physiological
maturity stages the fungi of Acremonium, Alternaria and Cladosporium
genera were dominant and accounted for 57-100%, 18.5-68.5% and 38-98.5%,
respectively. The grain infestation with Fusarium species was different
for different maize hybrids. The highest Fusarium spp. infestation at wax
and physiological maturity of grain was identified for the hybrid Baxxao
(26.5-78%), while the lowest infestation was identified for Trumph, RG-12, and
Magda (0 – 3%).
F. poae, F. sporotrichioides and F. avenaceum dominated in the grain of
all investigated maize hybrids, although F. culmorum, and F.
graminearum fungi, producing DON and zearalenon, were identified, too.
The accumulation of toxic Fusarium spp. fungi and mycotoxins
deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenon (ZEN) in grain as affected by different
storage was investigated, too. When grain was stored dreshed, no damage by toxic
Fusarium spp. fungi was identified, however, only traces of mycotoxin
zearalenon were identified 12.0–21.5 ppb, but no DON was found. When maize was
stored with cobs, the surface contamination and internal damage by fungi were
higher, however, no mycotoxin zearalenon was identified, and traces of DON were
detected (0.1 ppm) only in the grain of Trumph maize hybrid.
Key words: maize hybrids, maize grain, mould fungi, zearalenon, deoxynivalenol,
Animal Husbandry. Scientific Articles, 2004, 45, p. 71-79
COMPARISON OF PRODUCTION AND MILK QUALITY TRAITS OF LITHUANIAN NATIVE ASH-GREY
AND WHITE-BACKED CATTLE
The study was carried out in the period from 1st Oct 2002 to 30th Sept 2003 with
15 indigenous ash-grey and white-backed cows kept in the conservation herd of
the LVA Institute of Animal Science.
The average daily milk yield (whole and 4 % FCM) of white-backed cows (n=8) was,
respectively, 1.7 and 3.1 % lower than that of ash-grey cows (n=7).
Correspondingly, the daily yield of fat and protein was 4.1 and 6.5 % lower.
The average content of dry matter in the milk of ash-grey cows was 0.26 % higher
than that in the milk of white-backed cows. The contents of protein, casein,
total mineral matter, calcium and phosphorus were also higher than those in the
milk of white-backed cows. The milk fat of ash-grey cows contained 0.46 and 0.79
% more of, respectively, unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. There were
no significant differences for the physicochemical and technological properties
of milk of both ash-grey and white-backed cows and the milk met the requirements
for the production of cheese, butter and other dairy products.
The results from the study indicated that this study should be further continued
to analyze the quantitative changes in production and the peculiarities of the
nutritive, biological and technological value of milk from native white-backed
and ash-grey cattle.
Key words: native cattle, milk yield, milk quality.
Animal Husbandry. Scientific Articles, 2004, 45, p. 80-87
EFFICACY OF POST MILKING TEAT ANTISEPTICS
Jovita Matuolienė, Gediminas Vaičionis
In 2002-2003, a trial with Lithuanian Black-and-White cows was carried out at
the Institute of Animal Science of Lithuanian Veterinary Academy to determine
the efficacy of the antiseptic teat dipping products Hamra Dipal and Nova Dip.
Application of the products resulted in 1.5 and 3.24 times lower somatic cell
count in milk. Under present farming conditions, application of these
antiseptics had no significant influence on total bacterial count, milk yield,
fat and protein contents, milk acidity and lactose. Teat dipping was more
efficient method of treatment in comparison with teat spraying, because the
daily expenses for antiseptics per cow were increased by 0.95-0.96 cents at
Key words: somatic cells, milk quality, antiseptic teat dipping products, tie-up