"Animal Husbandry" Editorial Board Instructions

 "Animal Husbandry", 2008 Vol. 51 (Summaries)

ISSN 1392–6144
Animal Husbandry: Scientific Articles. 2008. 51. P. 4-9

UDK 636.2.082.083


Saveli O., Voore M.*, Kalda L., Liiv M.

Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences
Kreutzwaldi 1, Tartu, Tartumaa, Estonia; e–mail: olev.saveli@emu.ee


Over decades it has been traditional in Estonia to house cows on small tie stall farms or in feeding–resting cubicles (combi–cubicles) on large–scale dairy farms. On small farms summer grazing and on large farms zero–grazing was used. The first large–scale loose housing farms were established in 2002 (Torma POÜ and Põlva Agro OÜ), afterwards the construction of new large loose housing facilities has been increased. By 2007 already one third of the cows were housed in new farms.
At the end of 1990s some owners of the top herds were unsatisfied with the breeding values of bulls evaluated by breeding associations and it was decided to find the ways to bargain purchase of semen of the US young bulls. Two farms (A and C) used semen from unevaluated young bulls from US together with breeding bulls already evaluated in Estonia and bought from Netherlands and Germany. The risky method results are discussed hereinafter.
All farms in the experiment applied the principles of the breeding programme of Estonian Holstein. In order to increase and realize the genetic potential for the cow welfare, new modern loose housing large–scale farms (A and C) were constructed. The cows were inseminated with semen of the unevaluated young bulls from U.S. In the third farm (B) the cows were fed and housed conventionally but oestrus synchronization was applied. With the change of the housing system and feeding type, the effect of the calving season on milk production disappeared but genetic production capability of cows was realized better. Improvement cannot be achieved by applying only one biotechnological technique without renovating the housing and feeding system.
Key words: reproduction, loose housing, breeding programmes, Estonia


ISSN 1392–6144
Animal Husbandry: Scientific Articles. 2008. 51. P. 10-23

UDK 36.2.082


T. Põlluäär
1, E. Orgmets2

1Animal Breeders’ Association of Estonia, Märja 61406, Tartumaa, Estonia; e-mail: punane.kari@mail.ee
2Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail:einar.orgmets@emu.ee


Different breeds have been used for breeding of Estonian Red cattle (ER) over the past decades.
At present, seven breeds are more actively in use: Angeln (ANG), American Brown Swiss (BS), Red and White Holstein (RH), Swedish Red and White (SRB), Norwegian Red (NRF), Ayrshire (AYR), and Danish Red (DRM). The effect of different breeds on milk production, age at first calving, productive lifetime and longevity of Estonian Red breed was investigated.
A total of 8200 cows were included in the database. The cows were divided into seven groups according to the proportion of genes (> 50%) of different breeds in genotype. The analysis revealed the highest lifetime milk production of SRB and ANG cows. The lowest milk production showed the cows with AYR genotype. The longest lifetime and productive age were observed in ANG and ER cows
The cows with RH and SRB genotypes were culled earlier. The cows with SRB and RH genotypes were characterised by lower age at first calving. The highest age at first calving was found in ANG and ER groups of cows.
Regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationships between milk productivity, age at first calving, and productive lifetime. The regression analysis indicated that an one-day increase in age at first calving decreases the lifetime milk production by 4.2 kg. An one-day increase in productive period raises the lifetime milk production by 13.0 kg.
The culling reasons of cows were also analysed. The most frequent primary culling reasons were udder-related disorders, infertility and low milk yield.
Keywords: Estonian Red breed, milk production, age at first calving, longevity, culling reasons


ISSN 1392–6144
Animal Husbandry: Scientific Articles. 2008. 51. P. 24-30

UDK 636.2.082


Jemeljanovs A.
1, Sterna V.1, Strautmanis D.1, Osmane B.1, Jonkus D.2, Lujane B.1

1Latvia University of Agriculture, Research Institute of Biotechnology and Veterinary Medicine „Sigra”, Instituta 1, Sigulda, LV-2150, Latvia, e-mail: vitasterna@inbox.lv
2 Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of agriculture, Liela 2, Jelgava, LV-3001, Latvia


Milk coagulation has a massive effect on cheese production and efficiency of milk processing. Coagulation properties are largely affected by stage of lactation, breed, milk protein, calcium and phosphorus contents. The aim of the present study was to compare milk protein content and composition among cattle breeds raised in Latvia.
In the present research, 416 milk samples of Latvian Brown (LB; n=254) and Holsteins Black and White (HB&W; n=162) breed cows have been investigated. Measurements and statistical analyses were based on milk samples collected in 2006 through 2007, from different regions of Latvia. Protein and casein contents were analysed using Milkoscan 133. Surplus protein composition was compared in 88 milk samples of both breeds by precipitation of casein with acid and assaying α-lactoalbumin and β-lactoglobulin content.
The results of analysis showed that milk samples of HB&W breed cows made 3.27% protein and milk samples of LB breed cows- 3.55%, casein content made 2.56% and 2.80% respectively. It was concluded that differences in protein and casein contents were significant (p<0.05). Content of caseins after precipitation in milk samples of HB&W was 4.25g, but in milk samples of LB 4.51 g, sum of α-lactoalbumin and β-lactoglobulin in 5mililitres of whey was 0.98 and 1.09g. Therefore it is very important to save red breed bloodness in breeding with aim to improve the composition and content of raw milk protein.
Key words: protein, casein, breed



ISSN 1392–6144
Animal Husbandry: Scientific Articles. 2008. 51. P. 31

UDK 636.2.082


Mart Uba

Estonian Animal Recording Centre, Kreutzwaldi 48A, 50094 Tartu, Estonia,
e–mail: mart.uba@jkkeskus.ee


A multiple trait animal model was applied to two fertility traits: non–return rate to 56 days (N56) and interval from calving to first insemination (TPP). Insemination data was used up to 7 lactations and inseminations of later lactations were treated as repeated measurements. Genetic parameters and breeding values were estimated by VCE4 and PEST, respectively. Results of model validation by Interbull validation methods (Method I and Method III) were presented. Joint routine evaluation for Estonian Red breed (ER) and Estonian Holstein breed (EH) will be introduced in August 2008 and breeding values will be published for bulls only.
Key words: fertility, genetic evaluation, multiple trait animal model



ISSN 1392-6144
Animal Husbandry: Scientific Articles. 2008. 51. P. 32-38

UDK 636.4.082


Alo Tänavots
1 & Aarne Põldvere2

1 Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, Tartu 50416, Estonia,
e-mail: alo.tanavots@emu.ee
2 Estonian Pig Breeding Association, Aretuse 2, Märja 61411, Tartumaa, Estonia


The effects of pig gender on the most important factors for carcass quality were analyzed. In the experiment 15,212 pigs (gilts, barrows and young boars) were included. The carcass weight of slaughter pigs was 51.60-99.90 kg. After the slaughter, carcasses were measured with UltraFOM 300. Statistical analysis of data was performed using statistical package SAS with the least square means method where the procedure for general linear models (GLM) was used. Pearson's correlation coefficient was applied to calculate relationships between the traits. The farm from which the pigs originated had a significant effect on all meatiness traits. Young boars at 50-69.9 kg carcass weight showed superiority on meatiness traits. Fatteners (gilts and barrows) at 85-99.9 kg had significantly thicker subcutaneous fat, smaller diameter of longissimus dorsi and lower lean meat content. Higher carcass weight resulted in significantly lower lean meat content. Suggestions were made that carcass weight should be included in the breeding program to ensure uniformity of pig carcasses. It is important to manage pigs according to their gender weight.
Keywords: pigs, UltraFOM 300, meat traits


ISSN 1392-6144
Animal Husbandry: Scientific Articles. 2008. 51. P. 39-49

UDK 636.4.082


Violeta Razmaitė
1, Vilius Rekštys2, Sigita Kerzienė3

1Institute of Animal Science of Lithuanian Veterinary Academy,
R. Žebenkos 12, LT-82317 Baisogala, Radviliškis distr., Lithuania; e-mail: razmusv@one.lt
2State Pig Breeding Station, Paneriu 151, LT-48434, Kaunas, Lithuania
3Lithuanian Veterinary Academy, Tilzes 18, LT - 47181, Kaunas, Lithuania


The data used in this study were obtained from the State pig breeding station data bank and were used to evaluate prolificacy and litter production in the open composite population of Lithuanian White pigs. The records were used from eight different pig genotypes between 2000 and 2006 on operations that were perform on breeding pigs. The data were recorded by the producers. All the studied measurements were highly affected by the farm conditions. In particular, farm conditions have been shown to mostly affect the litter performance. Lithuanian White sows were more prolific than the sows of the new genotypes improved by using either the Large White or the Yorkshire. The total number of piglets born per litter was higher by 0.32 – 0.45 (P<0.001) piglet in comparison with the litters of the genotypes improved using the Large Whites and the Yorkshires. Sows of Lithuanian White x Large White genotype have showed higher litter size variation and number of desirable litters with the size of 12 piglets. Lithuanian White sows of whole open population, which also includes the data of purebred Lithuanian White sows, averaged 0.07 to 0.25 more (P<0.001) parities per year than discerned genotypes having different portions of Landrace, Yorkshire, Large White pigs. The average productive sow lifetime of Lithuanian White sows from whole open population was longer and these sows achieved an average parity of 4.42 (P<0.001,) compared with 3.43, 2.90 and 2.52 for genotypes improved using Landraces, Yorkshires and Large White, respectively.
Keywords: swine, sows, prolificacy, longevity, litter performance, genotype


ISSN 1392-6144
Animal Husbandry: Scientific Articles. 2008. 51. P. 50-57

UDK 636.3.082


Birutė Zapasnikienė, Rasa Nainienė

Institute of Animal Science of Lithuanian Veterinary Academy,
R. Žebenkos 12, LT-82317 Baisogala, Radviliškis distr., Lithuania, birutez@lgi.lt


1995 was the year when the flock of endangered local coarsewooled sheep was established at the LVA Institute of Animal Science. Currently the flock numbers approximately 100 animals. From the very beginning the sheep were evaluated for their biological and farming qualities.
In 2008, the analysis of the exclusive traits (aseasonal heat, multicoloured wool and horn presence) of the local coarsewooled sheep was carried out. The traits were evaluated in the period of 1996-2007.
The study indicated that local sheep from the conservation flock of the Institute lambed only once a year in 1995-1996 and 2002-2007. In the period from 1997 to 2001, the ewes lambed every 6 to 8 months. The average litter size during both ordinary (once a year) and more frequent (every 6 to 8 months) lambings was 2 lambs. The average litter size was 1.7 lambs only at years 4 and 5 of more frequent lambing (in 2000-2001) and at year 1 of ordinary lambing (in 2002-2003).
Wool colour variety of the ewes in the conservation flock was as follows: white 9.07%, light grey 25.06%, grey 17.18%, dark grey 8.35%, yellowish 11.22%, brownish grey 12.17%, brownish black 9.31% and black 7.64%. Meanwhile, there were on the average 22.5 and 86.6% horned females and males, respectively.
Key words: local sheep, aseasonal heat, fertility, wool colour, hornedness


ISSN 1392-6144
Animal Husbandry: Scientific Articles. 2008. 51. P. 58-71

UDK 636.5.082


Vaida Tubelytė
1,2, Algimantas Paulauskas1, Aniolas Sruoga1,2, *Vykintas Baublys1, Dalius Butkauskas2, Robertas Juodka3, Sigitas Janušonis3 , Elena Mozalienė2

1Vytautas Magnus University, Department of Biology, Vileikos 8, LT-44404 Kaunas, Lithuania, e-mail: v.tubelyte@gmf.vdu.lt
2Institute of Ecology of Vilnius University, Akademijos 2, LT-08412, Vilnius, Lithuania
3Institute of Animal Science of LVA, R. Žebenkos 12, LT-5125 Baisogala, Radviliškis distr., Lithuania


In Lithuania the genetic structure of domestic birds has been investigated since 1998. The biochemical and genetic markers of blood serum protein were used to determinate the genetic differentiation among different fowls: commercial turkey crosses, initial hen lines, Japanese quail populations, Grey guinea fowls, native and wild geese, Peking ducks. This study was performed for the comparison of the results obtained from different studies and for evaluation of the genetic background of Lithuanian domestic birds. In total, allele frequencies from eight blood serum protein loci were assessed in 770 domestic galliformes and 165 wild and domestic anseriforme birds. Different level of protein polymorphism was detected for pure breeds of quails and their hybrids in comparison with other galliformes and anseriformes birds: in these quails only 62.5% of all loci investigated were polymorphic, in other galliformes groups and anseriformes birds - 87.5%. The lowest amount of loci, significantly deviated from genetic equilibrium in the direction of homozygosity, were detected for laying hens, grey guinea fowls, Peking ducks, wild geese and native geese breeds and hybrids. The opposite situation was observed in domestic turkeys and Japanese quails. This study also provides more information about genetic closeness within Megapodiidae, Numididea and Phasianidae families. The obtained results confirmed genetic similarity between Meleagrididae and Phasianidae families and genetic distance of Numididea family.
Key words: poultry, native breed, blood serum proteins, genetic variability, genetic similarity



ISSN 1392-6144
Animal Husbandry: Scientific Articles. 2008. 51. P. 72-82

UDK 636.5.082


Robertas Juodka, Sigitas Janušonis, Audra Benediktavičiūtė–Kiškienė

Institute of Animal Science of LVA,R. Žebenkos 12, LT-82317 Baisogala, Radviliškis distr., Lithuania


After two control slaughterings, carcass traits and meat quality were analysed for Vishtines and Italian, also Vishtines and Landes goose breeds. Higher percentage of thigh mucles (+0.51%) and higher dressing percentage (+1.17%) was determined for Vishtines geese if compared with Italian ones. Breast muscles of Vishtines geese contained less protein (-0.53%), tryptophan (-15.30 mg) and had lower ratio of tryptophan : oxyprolin (-0.42) in comparison with Italian geese. The contents of palmitic (+1.88%) and stearic (+0.72%) fatty acids in the breast muscles of Vishtines geese were higher, while those of oleic (-0.88%) and linoleic (-1.37%) lower in comparison with Italian geese. The ratio of polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids was almost identical for both Vishtinės and Italian geese. Higher percentage of thigh muscles (+0.50%) and abdominal fat (+0.48%) was determined in the carcasses of Vishtines geese in comparison with Landes geese. At the same time, the dressing percentage (-0.79%) was lower for Vishtines geese in comparison with Landes ones. Fat content was higher (+0.75%), while protein content lower (-0.46%) in the breast muscles of Vishtines geese if compared with Landes geese.
Key words: Vishtines, Italian, Landes goose breeds, carcass traits, meat quality



ISSN 1392–6144
Animal Husbandry: Scientific Articles. 2008. 51. P. 83-91

UDK 636.089:591.69


Petras Prakas
1, Dalius Butkauskas1, Aniolas Sruoga1,2 & Liuda Kutkiene1

1Institute of Ecology of Vilnius University, Akademijos 2, LT-08412 Vilnius-21, Lithuania,
e-mail: petrasprakas@yahoo.com
2Vytautas Magnus University, Department of Biology, Vileikos 8, 3035 Kaunas, Lithuania


By light microscopy, three Sarcocystis species from roe deer (S. capreolicanis, S.cf. hofmanni and S. sp.) were identified. The obtained ssu rRNA gene partial sequences of roe deer Sarcocystis species vary between each other from 2.9% to 9.2%. Percentage similarity between sequences of two S. cf. hofmanni isolates was 97.1% and these two S. cf. hofmanni forms were named as S. cf. hofmanni1 and S. cf. hofmanni2. S. capreolicanis and S. sp. were grouped together with canine transmitted species in the Sarcocystidae phylogenetic tree. S. cf. hofmanni1 and S. cf. hofmanni2 were incorporated into one monophyletic group with S. tarandi, S. rangiferi, S. sp. I, S. scandinavica and S. sp Type D. Molecular data had showed that S. cf. hofmanni1 and S. sp. Type D parasitizing in moose could be considered as genetic lines of the same species.
Key words: Sarcocystis, SSU rRNA, phylogenetic analysis



ISSN 1392-6144
Gyvulininkystė. Mokslo darbai. 2008. 51. P. 92-105

UDK 636.2.083


Vytautas Ribikauskas, Ina Skurdenienė, Audronė Benediktavičiūtė-Kiškienė,
Gediminas Vaičionis

Lithuanian Institute of Animal Science of Lithuanian Veterinary Academy
R.Žebenkos 12, LT 82317 Baisogala, Radviliskis district, Lithuania, e-mail: vytautas@lgi.lt


The investigation was carried out in 2005 / 2006 on a typical Lithuanian duck farm. The aim of this study was to determine the emission of ammonia nitrogen, the pollution of environment by dust and micro organisms, to evaluate the conversion of alimentary stuff into weight by adding the remaining in manure too. The birds were kept indoors in groups of 450-700 on littered floor. Mature birds had the seasonal possibility to go outdoors to barnyard. It was determined that the total number of bacteria in the air of poultry houses where ducks were kept on littered floor was 89066±16050 CFU m-3. This did not depend on the season. Statistically reliable direct correlations were determined between the number of animal units (1 AU (Animal Unit) = 500 kg of alive weight) in the premises and E. coli, the amount of spores of mould fungi in the air of duck houses (respectively r = 0.58, P < 0.05 and r = 0.68, P < 0.01). The concentration of spores of mould fungi in the air was less when the relative humidity of the premises was higher (r = - 0.75, P < 0.05). When feeding ducks by combined full-rate feed, mature ducks assimilated 16.47 % of nitrogen from feed for the production of eggs and weight adding; the ducks breed for meat assimilated 22.35 % of nitrogen AU-1.
High and statistically reliable correlation dependence on the intensity of ammonia emission in the duck house and air temperature in the premises was identified (r = 0. 89, P < 0.005). In a calendar year with the technologies of keeping birds on littered floor, 17.82±2.47 % of excreted nitrogen was lost because of ammonia emission. The average ammonia emission in the duck house was 5.70 g hour-1.
Key words: ducks, poultry houses, ammonia, nitrogen emission, air pollution, dust, microorganisms