"Animal Husbandry" Editorial Board Instructions

 "Animal Husbandry", 2008 Vol. 52 (Summaries)

ISSN 1392–6144
Animal Husbandry: Scientific Articles. 2008. 52. P. 3-12

UDK 636.082


Wim M.G. Wismans

AMSO, director, Oud Zevenaarsedijk 19, Oud Zevenaar, The Netherlands


Worldwide farmers have big interest in breeding, and history shows emotional discussions about changes in strategy and breeding goals to realise economic farming. The difficult point in several countries was that some breeders had been strongly influenced in the operation by a breeding association which was not always in the general benefit of the farmers.
In the building up of the breeding activities, the Government played and still plays an important role in several countries, also financially. Even today Governments support breeding activities. The EU has special rules to allow EU member states to financially support breeding activities. But Governments are decreasing the subsidy and sometimes very significantly, resulting in no longer having any subsidy for breeding activities in some countries, except for endangered breeds. Also in some countries a levy system has been in place and especialy milkrecording received financial support.
Many opinions exist about the breeding goal and the same can be observed in the breeding structure. Many countries struggle to find the best structure. However when the Government plays an important role this can block new developments. Experiences show that when subsidy was decreased significantly, new developments with more efficiency were realised. This was on the long run more profitable for the farmers than the subsidy system.
Talking about breeding structure and services to the farmer means there is only one important focus point and that is the farmer. In all cases the farmer will decide sooner or later if he is satisfied about the services and willing to pay for them. If not, the farmer will find other possibilities to get the right service.
This paper describes the experiences in the breeding structure in Europe, the present day and future needs of farmers from breeding associations to manage their farm and the challenge for breeding organisations and Governments to establish a new structure and new services. Based on the results of the analyses of the farmer’s perspective in ten years ahead, a new structure should be realised based on the free market principle and with the main task to present services to the farmer he is willing to pay for. To realise this is a real challenge for the Government and breed associations.
Keywords: breeding structure, breeding services, farm management, free market, EU policy
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ISSN 1392-6144
Husbandry: Scientific Articles. 2008. 52. P. 13-29

UDK 631.4


Angelija Bučienė

Klaipėdos universitetas
Minijos 153, Klaipėda, LT-93185, Lithuania


The farming intensity is the only factor which can be controlled by human actions while growing ecological production, other factors are functioning independently, thus the probability to pollute water remains. That is why it is important to know which factors are more responsible for the non-point pollution of N and P with drainage runoff, how big their leaching can be under the different natural and farming conditions. With this paper the research materials obtained and published in Lithuania on factors mostly influencing the leaching of nitrogen and phosphorus with drainage runoff are analysed. On the basis of this analysis, the prognosis of nutrient leaching changes in approaching 5 years (from 2008 till 2012) in accordance with the increase of ecological mixed farms in Lithuania was made.
Key words: drainage runoff, leaching of nitrogen and phosphorus, ecological mixed farms


ISSN 1392-6144
Animal Husbandry: Scientific Articles. 2008. 52. p. 30-38

UDK 636.082


Jurij Lavrinovič
1, Vida Juozaitienė1, Jonas Kutra2, Renata Japertienė1, Algirdas Kanapeckas1

1Lithuanian veterinary academy, Tilžės g. 18, LT-47181, Kaunas, Lithuania
2Institute of Animal Science of LVA, R. Žebenkos str. 12, LT-82317 Baisogala, Radviliškis distr., Lithuania


The objective of this study was to investigate phenotypic correlations between the length of productive life and exterior and udder traits of cows. The data set consisted of 6120 Lithuanian Black-and-White and 2756 Red and Red-and-White cows from 1996 to 2007 in state enterprise Agri-Information and Rural Business Center.
Statistically significant influence of the breed was determined as regards the length of productive life of cows (P<0.0001). The impact of all exterior traits on the length of productive life of cows was significant (P<0.0001). The phenotypic correlations between the length of productive life and body evaluations were positive for stature, size and dairy type. The correlations between the length of productive life and the rump angle were negative in all the breeds of cows. The correlations between the length of productive life and rear leg form, hoof height and hoof tarsus angle were positive (P<0.0001).
Key words: cows, exterior, length of productive life, phenotypic, correlation


ISSN 1392-6144
Animal Husbandry. Scientific Articles. 2008. 52. p. 39-50

UDK 636.1.082


Vidmantas Pileckas

Institute of Animal Science of LVA,
R. Žebenkos str. 12, LT-82317 Baisogala, Radviliškis distr., Lithuania


The semen with the sperm motility of not lower than 7 points (70% motile spermatozoa) and concentration not lower than 0.8 million was diluted two times. The first dilution was at a rate of 1:1 with a diluent of 27±10C and cooled for 15 minutes at 19±10C. Afterwards, the semen was diluted with a diluent of 19±10C up to the required sperm concentration. The semen was packaged into 0.25 cm3 polypropylenic straws with the semen packaging and sealing machine. The straws were placed into racks and cooled in a refrigerator at 4±10C, then frozen on the freezing device-shield in the container KV 6202. The lactose-glycerol-egg yolk extender was used for semen freezing. The control extender contained 11.5 g lactose, 5 cm3 glycerol, 20 cm3 egg yolk and 100 cm3 distilled water. Also extenders with 8, 9, 10, 10.5 and 12 g of lactose were prepared with the other extender components remaining unchanged. Mixed bull ejaculates were divided and diluted with a corresponding lactose content in the extender. Afterwards, the semen was packaged, cooled and frozen on the basis of the same technological processes and regimes. After determination of the most suitable lactose content in the extender for semen packaging, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 and 400 mg of sodium citrate was added. Our study indicated that the highest sperm motility at semen packaging into 0.25 cm3 polypropylenic straws was found in the semen diluted with the extender containing 10 and 10.5 g lactose / 100 cm3, and this result was 5.9% (P < 0.025) and 3.9% (P > 0.1) higher in comparison with the control extender. The percentage of live spermatozoa was 11% (P < 0.005) lower when the extender containing 12 g lactose was used. The highest number of spermatozoa with intact acrosomes was found in the semen frozen with the extenders containing 10 and 10.5 g lactose / 100 cm3, this indicator was, respectively, 55±7.7% and 53.4±11.9% if compared with 51.8±7.1% when the control extender was used. Sperm viability after 5 h storage at 38±0.50C was highest in the semen diluted with the extender containing 10.5 g lactose (2.9±1.2 points) and 10 g lactose (2.8±1.6 points). These results were, respectively, 26 (P < 0.005) and 21.7% higher in comparison with the control extender. In order to improve the physiological responses of semen, sodium citrate from 50 to 400 mg, at an interval of 50 mg, was added into the extender containing 10.5 g lactose. Our study indicated that sodium citrate had influenced sperm motility and survival time but had no significant influence on acrosome survival. The highest post-thaw motility of spermatozoa was determined when the extender contained 200 mg sodium citrate (5.7±0.1 points), 250 mg / 100 cm3 sodium citrate addition reduced sperm motility by 7.0% (P < 0.015) in comparison with 200 mg / 100 cm3 sodium citrate addition (P < 0.001). However, sperm motility was 26.2% higher (P < 0.001) if compared with the control extender without sodium citrate. The acrosomes were best preserved in the extender with 250 mg / 100 cm3 sodium citrate (58.2±0.78%) but the difference was statistically insignificant. After 5 hour exposure at 38±0.50C, sperm motility in the semen frozen with the extender containing 10.5 g lactose and 200 mg sodium citrate was twice higher than that with the control extender and made up 3.1±0.1 points.
Keywords: semen, extender, components, cryopreservation


ISSN 1392-6144
Animal Husbandry: Scientific Articles. 2008. 52. p. 60-70

UDK 636.2.084.637.5


Petras Bendikas, Virginijus Uchockis, Vytautas Tarvydas, Gintautas Švirmickas

Institute of Animal Science of LVA,
R. Žebenkos str. 12, LT-82317 Baisogala, Radviliškis distr., Lithuania


In 2007, two analogous groups of eight Lithuanian Black-and-White fattening bulls each were used in a feeding trial at the LVA Institute of Animal Science. The bulls in both groups were fed fixed amounts of hay and straw, ad libitum sugar beet pulp silage and green feeds and 3.0 kg of compound feed of different composition. In winter time, barleay and triticale in the compound feed were supplemented, accordingly by the group, by either 19% of rapeseed cake or oil-meal. In summer time the amount of rapeseed cake or oil-meal accounted for 10%. In winter and in summer time the amount of crude protein in the compound feed with rapeseed cake was, respectively, 182.7 and 157.8 g/kg or 3.1 and 4.9% lower than in the compound feed with rapeseed oil-meal. However, the amount of metabolizable energy in the compound fed with rapeseed cake was, respectively, 0.53 and 0.38 MJ/kg higher than in the compound feed containing rapeseed oil-meal. The bulls fed different compound feeds gained weight intensively. The bulls fed either rapeseed cake or rapeseed oil-meal gained daily respectively 1066 and 1170 g or 9.8% more when fed rapeseed oil-meal (P > 0.1). The animals fed rapeseed oil-meal also consumed more silage and greed feeds and, thus, had 4.6% more metabolizable energy and 7.8% more crude protein. Bull feeding with either rapeseed cake or oil-meal had no significant influence on the dressing percentage and morphological composition of the carcasses, and carcass and meat quality.
Key words: compound feed containing rapeseed cake or oil-meal, fattening bulls, growth, carcass and meat quality


ISSN 1392-6144
Animal Husbandry: Scientific Articles. 2008. 52. P. 71-85

UDK 636.4.084


Raimondas Leikus, Jūratė Norvilienė, Violeta Juškienė

Institute of Animal Science of LVA,
R. Žebenkos 12, LT-82317 Baisogala, Radviliškis distr., Lithuania


In 2004-2005 feeding trial with fattening pigs were carried out at the LVA Institute of Animal Science to determine the effect of multienzyme composition (α-amylase 70 U/g; units per gram, β-glucanase 700 U/g, xylanase 1800 U/g, protease 0,8 U/g) in the feed with a high content of triticale (60-70%) on the growth of pigs, conversion and digestibility of feeds.
The trials indicated that mixing in 0.05% multienzyme composition into the compound feed containing 60-70% of triticale resulted in 11.0% (P<0.05) higher daily weight gain. There were no significant pig growth differences when the pig diets were supplemented with 0.035, 0.075, 0.1 and 0.125% multienzyme composition.
Supplementation of the triticale based diet with 0.05% multienzyme composition resulted in 3.4 -7% lower food consumption per kg gain and 4.8-8.8% higher daily food requirement. 0.035, 0.075, 0.1 and 0.125% multienzyme composition supplementation of the diet did not influence the food intake.
There was a tendency observed that 0.05% multienzyme composition supplementation into the compound feed for pigs containing 60-70% of triticale increased protein (2.3%; P>0.2), fat (8.4%; P>0.4) and fiber (13.8%; P>0.2) digestibilities, whereas 0.125% multienzyme composition supplementation increased protein (5.8%; P>0.1) and fibre (4.1%; P>0.2) digestibilities. 0.035% multienzyme composition supplementation of the diet resulted only in 19.7% (P<0.025) higher fat digestibility. There was no difference in nutrient digestibility at 0.1% multienzyme composition feeding.
The results from the trials indicated that 0.05% is the optimum content of the multienzyme composition with higher xylanase and glucanase activity used for supplementation of the diets with a higher content (60-70%) of triticale. This amount of the multienzyme composition improves pig growth and lowers food consumption per kg gain.
Keywords: triticale, growth of pigs, feed intake, feed digestibility


ISSN 1392-6144
Animal Husbandry: Scientific Articles. 2008. 52. P. 86-93

UDK 636.083.635.7


Rūta Mickienė¹,², Annette Springorum², Bronius Bakutis¹, Joerg Hartung²

1 Lithuanian Veterinary Academy, Tilžės str. 18. LT–47181 Kaunas, Lithuania
2 Institute for Animal Hygiene University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover


Recently essential oil sprays were recommended as a new approach to reduce airborne micro-organisms in animal houses. The antibacterial activity of such oils from Malaleuca alternifolia, Zingiber officinale, was tested on 2 gram+ (Staphylococcus aureus DSM No.799, Enterococcus faecium DSM No. 2918), 3 gram- (Pseudomonas aeruginosa DSM No. 939, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis DSM No.788) species and the yeast Candida albicans DSM No.1386 using the broth dilution method. Standard bacterial broth cultures were mixed with different concentrations of essential oils in steps from 0.5 to 50% in order to determine the lowest effective antibacterial concentration. The oils showed a very wide spectrum of antibacterial activity. Concentrations of 0,5% of Malaleuca alternifolia reduced total bacterial counts of Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis to below 1%. 5% inactivated Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecium, for Staphylococcus aureus 8% were necessary. Candida albicans are sensitive for Malaleuca alternifolia 0,5%. Contrary, a low antibacterial activity presented Zingiber officinale essential oil, where concentration to 50%. Needed to decrease bacterial counts to less than 1%.
Keywords: essential oils, disinfection, microorganisms


ISSN 1392–6144
Animal Husbandry: Scientific Articles. 2008. 52. P. 51-59

UDK 636.2.084


Jonas Jatkauskas, Vilma Vrotniakienė, Danguolė Urbšienė

Institute of Animal Science of Lithuanian Veterinary Academy, Baisogala, LT-82317 R. Zebenkos 12, Radviliskis distr., Lithuania


Two silages were prepared from the first cut grass-legume sward consisting of ryegrass, red clover and fescue and wilted for up to 10 h. The control silage had no additives and the experimental silage was prepared with a mix of bacterial inoculant. Both silages were stored in round-bales wrapped with 6 layers of stretch film for 82 days, and silage pH, organic acids, ammonia N and nutrient content were investigated. In control and inoculated silage pH were 4.6 and 4.2, amount of lactic acid 27.6 and 46.1 gkg−1 DM (P<0.05), acetic acid 12.3 and 13.7gkg−1 DM, and butyric acid 4.7 and 2.2 gkg−1 DM, respectively. DM losses were reduced (P<0.01) and DM metabolisable energy concentration was increased (P< 0.01) by the bacterial inoculation. The inoculated silage was more (P<0.05) aerobically stable than the control silage. Ten third lactation Lithuanian Black-and-White cows, in the fifth month of the lactation stage, were used to measure intake of silages and animal performance. Treatment of the silage with inoculant showed a trend towards increased silage dry matter intakes and an improvement in average milk yield of 1.2 kg/day, whereas these differences were not significant. Milk composition was not affected by inoculation, but the output of milk constituents (butterfat and protein) was improved. It is concluded that the increase in milk production with inoculant-treated forage is the result of improvements in both intake of the forage and increasing efficiency of utilisation.
Key words: silage, inoculant, fermentation, aerobic stability, dairy cows, milk production
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