"Animal Husbandry" Editorial Board Instructions

 "Animal Husbandry", 2009 Vol. 53 (Summaries)

ISSN 1392–6144
Animal Husbandry: Scientific Articles. 2009. 53. P. 3-16

UDK 636.4.082


Violeta Razmaitė, Danguolė Urbšienė

Institute of Animal Science of LVA,
R. Žebenkos str. 12, LT–82317 Baisogala, Radviliškis distr., Lithuania


With the aim to evaluate the meat quality fifty–seven animals from three genotype groups were used in the experiment. These groups were from purebred Lithuanian indigenous wattle pigs and from two combinations of wild boar genotype, i.e 1/4 WB genotype and 1/2 WB genotype, and of two genders (gilts and castrated males). All the animals were born at the Institute of Animal Science of the Lithuanian Veterinary Academy. The animals were reared indoors from birth to slaughter consuming twice a day the same standard concentrate feed. Samples of M. longissimus dorsi were removed from the loin of the left side of carcasses at the cut removing ham (1–2 lumbar vertebra) over 24 h period in a chillier. The muscles from hybrids had a higher content of dry matter (P<0.05) compared with Lithuanian indigenous wattle pigs. Higher portion of wild boar in the hybrids increased the content of dry matter in the muscles. No significant differences were estimated for other chemical composition and meat quality traits. Although there was a wide range of meat quality estimates, it could be considered that the quality of meat from Lithuanian indigenous wattle pigs and their hybrids with wild boar is high. The gilts from all studied genotypes had higher content of intramuscular fat compared with castrated males. However, significant differences were found for Lithuanian indigenous wattle pigs and 1/4 WB genotype. Positive correlations that were estimated between the age and meat pH for Lithuanian indigenous pigs (r=0.47), 1/4 WB genotype (r=0.34) and 1/2 WB genotype (r=0.71) hybrids show that intensive rearing is not suitable for these animals. The principal component analysis showed that the effects of undetected factors were higher for the meat quality traits from the wild boar genotypes than from the domestic Lithuanian indigenous wattle pigs.
Key words: swine, wild boar, hybrids, meat



ISSN 1392-6144
Animal Husbandry: Scientific Articles. 2009. 53. P. 17-29

UDK 636.3.082


Birutė Zapasnikienė

Institute of Animal Science of LVA,
R. Žebenkos str. 12, LT–82317 Baisogala, Radviliškis distr., Lithuania


The analysis of the reproduction and progeny growth data in 2006–2008 of all the sheep breeds kept in Lithuania (local coarsewooled, Lithuanian Blackface, German Blackface, German Merino, Charollais, Texel, Dorper, Romanov and Suffolk) indicated that 39.03 % of all ewes (n = 1878) used in the study lambed in winter, 38.55 % in spring, 11.28 % in summer and 11.13 % in autumn.
The litter size of the ewes lambing in different seasons differed from 1.27 to 21.9 % (in 0.02–0.58 lambs). The weight difference of newborn lambs ranged from 0.05 to 0.68 kg. German Blackface, mutton Merinos, Texel and Dorper ewes gave birth to 2 to 15 % more lambs in winter, while local coarsewooled, Charollais, Romanov and Suffolk ewes lambed by 4 to 16 % more lambs in spring. Meanwhile, Lithuanian Blackface ewes showed the highest fertility in autumn, and the ewes of all the breeds were least fertile in summer.
The weight of the lambs of the following breeds born in winter was higher, i.e. German Blackface (3.91 kg), Charollais (3.64 kg), Texel (4.39 kg), Dorper (4.22 kg) and Suffolk (4.26 kg). However, mutton Merinos gave birth to heavier lambs in spring (3.55 kg), local coarsewooled in summer (3.06 kg) and Lithuanian Blackface and Romanov breeds in autumn (4.13 and 2.83 kg, respectively).
Until 4 months of age, daily weight gain was from 8 to 22 g higher for the summer lambs of Romanov, Lithuanian Blackface and local coarsewooled breeds, however, from 4 to 7 months of age, 3 to 32 g higher daily gains were shown by the progeny born in winter. Meanwhile, winter–born German Blackface, Charollais, Texel and Suffolk lambs gained daily 1 to 12 g more during the whole growth period from 0 to 7 months of age.
Keywords: sheep, lambing season, litter size, lamb weight



ISSN 1392-6144
Animal Husbandry: Scientific Articles. 2009. 53. P. 30-39

UDK 636.1.082


Vidmantas Pileckas, Algirdas Urbšys, Artūras Šiukščius, Jonas Kutra

Institute of Animal Science of LVA,
R. Žebenkos str. 12, LT–82317 Baisogala, Radviliškis distr., Lithuania


A study was carried at the Animal Reproduction Department of the LVA Institute of Animal Science and Vilnius Stud to determine the effects of the season on the physiological responses of fresh and preserved stallion semen. Qualitative and morphological parameters of fresh diluted and cryopreserved stallion semen were estimated. Semen freezing qualities were determined using stallion semen that met the requirements for fresh semen, i.e. the semen with the sperm motility not lower than 6 points (60 %) and concentration not lower than 0.15 mlrd./cm³. The study indicated that the season had no significant influence on the pH–value of semen, yet influenced the ejaculate volume and sperm concentration. Semen pH values ranged from 7.28 to 7.21 throughout the year, however, these values corresponded to the physiological standard (6.8–7.7).
The ejaculate volume was lowest in autumn (approx. 20.9 cm3), but in other seasons it remained comparatively stable and ranged from 27.4 to 27.8 cm3. The lowest sperm concentration in fresh semen was determined from June to August. Sperm motility was lower in spring (38 %) if compared with other seasons (54–59 %). Visual estimation indicated that the number of normal spermatozoa accounted for approximately 60–65 %. There was a significant difference in the number of spermatozoa with normal heads in different seasons: 21 % in summer and 30–33 % in other seasons. The season had no influence either on the number of live spermatozoa in a thawed semen dose (53–57 million) or on the post–thawed sperm motility (20–23 % spermatozoa with progressive movement).
Key words: stallions, semen quality, season



ISSN 1392-6144
Animal Husbandry: Scientific Articles. 2009. 53. P. 40-51

UDK 636.2.084


Jonas Jatkauskas, Vilma Vrotniakienė, Danguolė Urbšienė

Institute of Animal Science of Lithuanian Veterinary Academy
R. Zebenkos str. 12, Baisogala LT–82317, Radviliskis distr., Lithuania


This study was aimed at determining the effectiveness of the mixture of lactic acid bacteria at improving fermentation of whole crop summer wheat, voluntary feed intake and dairy cows performance. Whole crop summer wheat was ensiled in big bales either without any additive or with addition of bacterial inoculant (Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus acidilactici ir Lactococcus lactis). Silage DM content, chemical composition, pH value, organic acids, ammonia N were investigated. Additive treatment reduced pH value by 0.09 units (4.16 vs 4.07) and the content of butyric acid by 1.0 gkg−1 DM (1.7 vs 0.7 gkg−1 DM) and increased the amount of lactic acid by 13.6 gkg−1 DM (23.6 vs 37.2 gkg−1; P<0.05). DM losses were reduced by 1.8 % (P<0.01) and DM metabolisable energy concentration was increased by 2.0% due to bacterial inoculation. Lithuanian Black–and–White cows in the third – fifth month of lactation stage were used to measure voluntary intake of silages and animal performance. Over the total experimental period the animals receiving the inoculant–treated silage consumed 0.6 kg d –1 more silage dry matter and produced 0.9 kg d –1 more fat corrected milk than those given the control silage. Milk composition was not affected by inoculation, but the output of milk constituents (butterfat and protein) was improved. It is concluded that the increase in milk production with inoculant–treated forage is a result of improvements in both intake of the forage and increasing efficiency of utilisation.
Key words: whole crop cereals, summer wheat, silage, bacteria, fermentation, dairy cows, milk production



ISSN 1392-6144
Animal Husbandry: Scientific Articles. 2009. 53. P. 52-62

UDK 636.4.084


Raimondas Leikus, Violeta Juškienė, Jūratė Norvilienė, Remigijus Juška

Institute of Animal Science of LVA,
R. Žebenkos str. 12, LT–82317 Baisogala, Radviliškis distr., Lithuania


In 2008, a feeding trial with fattening pigs was carried out at the LVA Institute of Animal Science to determine the effect of glycerol on pig growth, feed consumption and carcass quality. The study indicated that there was a tendency towards higher weight gains of pigs after 15 % glycerol inclusion into the compound feed. Two analogous groups of pigs of 12 animals each were make up according to their parentage, age, weight, body conditions score and gender. During the trial the pigs were kept in equal conditions that met all hygiene requirements. The pigs in the control (I) and experimental (II) groups were fed twice daily compound feed of the same composition. However, the experimental group of received 15 % glycerine (150 g/kg) as an additional source of energy that was included in the compound feed. The research data were processed using Statistics for windows (version 7).
It's a result, the average daily gain of pigs was 1.5-5.6 % (P=0.400-0.873) higher than that of control pigs. Glycerol supplementation of pig diets improved feed consumption only for growing pigs (up to 60 kg weight). Their daily feed consumption was 2.8 % higher and feed consumption per kg gain was 2.9 % love than that of control pins. Also, glycerol had no influence on pig health. 15 % glycerol supplementation of pig diets did not affect the carcass quality of pigs.
Key words: glycerol, pig growth, feed consumption, carcass quality



ISSN 1392-6144
Animal Husbandry: Scientific Articles. 2009. 53. P. 63-70

UDK 633.16


Juozas Pekarskas, Algirdas Sliesaravičius

Lithuanian University of Agriculture,
Studentų 11, LT-53361 Akademija, Kauno distr.


The study was carried out in the period of 2004−2006 on the farm of organic production of the Agroecology Center at the Lithuanian University of Agriculture. The productivity of summer barley under conditions of organic farming was found to be 3.15−3.64 t ha-1. The productivity of malt barley was found to be lower than the productivity of summer barley. The amount of crude protein in the grain of ‘Luoke’ cultivar decreased significantly compared to the barley of ‘Aidas’ cultivar, and barley grain of ‘Aura DS’ cultivar accumulated significantly more crude fat than the grain of ‘Justina’ cultivar. Significant differences between malt barley cultivars were found for crude protein and crude fat, however, differences in crude fibre and crude ash were found insignificant. The highest energy of forage metabolism and net lactation was found when the barley of ‘Justina’ cultivar was cultivated and the lowest values were those of ‘Aidas’ summer barley. Higher energy of forage metabolism and net lactation was obtained for malt barley if compared with summer barley.
Keywords: barley, productivity, chemical composition of grain, metabolizable energy of forage and net lactation energy



ISSN 1392-6144
Animal Husbandry: Scientific Articles. 2009. 53. P. 71-78

UDK 633.2


Juozas Pekarskas, Vidmantas Spruogis

Lithuanian University of Agriculture,
Studentų str. 11, LT-53361 Akademija, Kauno distr.


The research on the effects of potassium fertilizers on organically grown perennial grasses was carried out in the period of 2000−2005 on the organic production farm of the Agroecology Center at the Lithuanian University of Agriculture. Under the influence of potassium fertilizers, hay yield of perennial grasses from the first cutting increased by 1.27−1.30 t he-1 or 33.0−33.8 per cent and the yield from aftermath increased by 0.39−0.41 t he-1 or 16.1−16.9 per cent. Potassium fertilizers have significantly increased the hay yield from both first cutting perennial grasses and the aftermath. Due to the effect of potassium fertilizers, the amount of crude protein was increased both in the grass of first cutting and in the aftermath. Application of potassium fertilizers increased significantly the amount of crude fat in hay of first cutting, however, this had no significant effect on the amount of green grasses in the aftermath. Potassium fertilizers did not have any significant effect on the botanical composition of perennial grasses. Higher metabolism energy in perennial grasses of the first year usage and higher net lactation was found in hay from the first cutting rather than from the aftermath. Potassium fertilizers increased metabolism energy and net lactation in both hay from the first cutting of perennial grasses and aftermath.
Key words: first year perennial grasses, harvest, chemical and botanical composition, energy of forage metabolism and net lactation



ISSN 1392–6144
Animal Husbandry: Scientific Articles. 2009. 53. P. 79-89

UDK 633.2.394


Antanas Svirskis

Šiauliai University,
Vilniaus g. 88, LT-76265 Šiauliai

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture,
Instituto al. 1, LT-58344 Akademija, Kėdainių distr.


Changing climate and increasing number of animal species raised, especially in the organic farming systems, require a new approach to the expansion of the range of plant species grown for forage. Results from our long-term studies show that in Lithuania’s agroclimatic conditions such plant species as amaranth (Amaranthus spp.), proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.), foxtail millet or chumiza (Setaria italica (L.) P.Beauv.) and some others can be successfully grown for grain and produce almost the same yield and even better chemical composition than conventional oats or barley. In southern countries those species are widely grown for fodder and are used as green mass, hay or silage. Our former experiments showed very good quality of silage made from amaranth.
In 2006-2007 two trials were conducted at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture where 1 amaranth, 3 proso millet, 2 foxtail millet and some other species, varieties and accessions were grown for green mass and dry matter yield. Using almost the same agrotechnics as for spring cereals two cuts were taken annually. Green mass, dry matter yield and chemical composition showed that many of the tested varieties and accessions of the non-traditional plants for our agroclimatic region in both dry 2006 and wet 2007 year produced rather high yield and can be used as forage for many animal species as green mass, hay or silage. The highest yield of dry matter using rather extensive agrotechnics in dry 2006 and in normal 2007 produced fodder mallow ’Dolina’ (9.9 and 13.7 tha-1), amaranth ’Geltonukai’ (4.4 and 7.5 tha-1), in 2006 proso millet ’Gelsvės’ (2.9 tha-1) and in 2007 – foxtail millet ’Rudukės’ (7.6 tha-1).
Key words: amaranth, proso millet, foxtail millet, yield, chemical composition


ISSN 1392–6144
Animal Husbandry: Scientific Articles. 2009. 53. P. 90-100

UDK 638.1


Vidmantas Pileckas, Gintautas Švirmickas, Angelė Pileckienė, Virginija Švirmickienė

Institute of Animal Science of LVA,
R. Žebenkos str. 12, LT–82317 Baisogala, Radviliškis distr., Lithuania


The purpose of the study was to analyse the effect of plant smoke aerosols on the control of the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor in honeybee colonies during honey flow and to determine the body weight changes of bees depending on the mite invasion degree into the bee colony. The study was carried out at the Institute of Animal Science of Lithuanian Veterinary Academy and in two apiaries in the district of Radviliškis.
The study indicated that the higher was the invasion degree of the mite into the bee colony; the lower was the body weight of healthy bees. When the mite infestation increased from 6.2 to 8.2 %, the average body weight of the bee became 13.3 % (P<0.001) lower, but there were no further body weight changes with the increasing mite invasion. When the mite presence amounted to 9.7–13.0 %, bee weight increased by approximately 7.7 %. Under the same intensity of mite infestation in the whole bee colony, the body weight of mite infested bees was 26.7 % lower in comparison with the body weight healthy bees.
After the first treatment with smoke aerosol Artemisia absinthium, in 24 hours the number of mites found was approximately 120 ± 9.06 (P<0,001) or 10.6 mites per one per cent of infestation and 3,7±0,73 bees lost. In 12 days, after the second treatment, there were 44.6±5.92 mites (P<0.001) and 2.4±0.76 bees found. After the second treatment the bees became trouble and aggressive. Before treatment with Thuja occidentalis, mite infestation of bees accounted for about 9.7±0.6 %. After the first treatment with Thuja occidentalis, the number of fallen mites amounted to on the average 271.5±7.88 (P<0.001), after the second – 254.8±12.04 mites and that was by 210.2 (P<0.001) mites more compared with the bee colonies treated with Artemisia absinthium for the second time. Although the level of mite infestation was similar (the difference statistically insignificant) but twice treatment with Artemisia absinthium resulted in 164.6±7.49 fallen mites and the treatment with Thuja occidentalis in 526.3±9.98 fallen mites (P<0,001). According, the number of dead bees after the treatment with Thuja occidentalis was 68.9 % (P<0.05) higher than after treatment with Artemisia absinthium. At 8.5±0.31 % mite invasion, first treatment with Thymus vulgaris smoke aerosol resulted in 180.5±6.83 fallen mites and 0.67±0.33 bees, the second treatment resulted in 143.7±5.36 fallen mites and 1.1±0.43 dead bees.
Key words: varroa destructor, bees, plant smoke