"Animal Husbandry" Editorial Board Instructions

 "Animal Husbandry", 2010 Vol. 55 (Summaries)

ISSN 1392–6144
Animal Husbandry: Scientific Articles. 2010. 55. P. 3-16

UDK 636.2.084


Jonas Jatkauskas, Vilma Vrotniakiene, Danguole Urbšienė

Institute of Animal Science of Lithuanian Veterinary Academy, R. Žebenkos 12, LT-82317 Baisogala, Radviliškis distr., Lithuania


This study was aimed at determining the effectiveness of the chemical additive
at improving fermentation of whole crop spring barley, voluntary feed intake and
dairy cows performance. Whole crop spring barley was ensiled in big bales either
without any additive or with addition of chemical additive (formic acid – 44 %,
ammonium formiate- 30 %, propionic acid – 9 %, benzoic acid – 2 %, water – 15
%, color E 150). Silages DM content, chemical composition, pH value, organic
acids, ammonia N were investigated. Additive treatment statistically significant
reduced amount of lactic and acetic acids and suspend fermentation of butyric
acid. DM losses were reduced by 15 % (P<0.01) and DM metabolisable energy
concentration was increased by 5.5 % due the chemical additional. Over the total
experimental period the animal receiving the additive-treated silage consumed 0.7 kg d -1 more silage dry matter and produced 0.9 kg d -1 more fat corrected milk
than those given control silage. Milk composition was not affected by chemical
additional, but the output of milk constituents (butterfat and protein) was improved.
It is concluded that the increase in milk production with additive-treated forage
is a result of improvements in both intake of the forage and increasing efficiency
of utilisation.
Keywords: spring barley, silage, chemical additive, fermentation, dairy cows,
milk production



ISSN 1392-6144
Animal Husbandry: Scientific Articles. 2010. 55. P. 17-27

UDK 636.2.084.637.5


Virginijus Uchockis, Petras Bendikas

Institute of Animal Science of LVA,
R. Žebenkos 12, LT-82317 Baisogala, Radviliškis distr., Lithuania


Two analogous groups of Lithuanian Black-and-White fattening bulls of 7
animals each were used in a feeding trial that was carried out at the LVA Institute
of Animal Science in 2008. In winter the bulls in Group 1 were offered maize
silage ad libitum and 3.0 kg of compound feed, the bulls in Group 2 were given
sugarbeet pulp silage ad libitum and 3.0 kg of compound feed. Besides, the bulls
in both groups were fed 1.0 kg hay daily. In summer all the bulls were fed green
feeds ad libitum and 3.0 kg of compound feed. During the 230 day long trial
period the bulls fed maize silage in winter and green feeds in summer gained
daily 1193 g and those fed sugarbeet pulp silage and green feeds 1140 g each
or 4.4 % lower (P > 0.4). The consumption of metabolizable energy per kg gain
in Group 2 was 3.9 % higher and the price for the feeds consumed was 2.3 %
lower. Bull feeding with different silages in winter and the same green feeds in
summer had no significant influence on the dressing percentage, morphological
composition of carcass and carcass and meat quality.
Key words: silage, green feeds, fattening bulls, growth rate, carcass and meat



ISSN 1392-6144
Animal Husbandry: Scientific Articles. 2010. 55. P. 28-40

UDK 636.4.084.637.5


Jūratė Norvilienė, Violeta Juškienė, Raimondas Leikus, Remigijus Juška

Institute of Animal Science of LVA,
R. Žebenkos str. 12, LT-82317 Baisogala, Radviliškis distr., Lithuania


The feeding trial with fattening pigs was carried out at the Institute of Animal
Science of Lithuanian Veterinary Academy to determine the effect of protein
feedstuffs on pig growth, feed consumption, carcass, meat and fat quality. Three
analogous groups of pigs of 12 animals each were made up according to their
parentage, age, weight, body condition score and gender. During the trial the pigs
were kept under equal conditions that met all hygiene requirements. Growing
pigs were offered adequate diets containing field beans (20–25 %), sweet lupines
(15–20 %) in place of soybean or sunflower oil meal (control).
The replacement of soybean and sunflower oil-meals in the compound feed
with 20 % of field bean and 15 % of lupin meal for growing pigs (under 60 kg
weight) and 25 % of field bean and 20 % of lupin meal for finishing pigs (over 60
kg) had no significant influence on the growth and feed intake of pigs.
The length of the carcass, dressing percentage, weight of ham, chemical
composition and physical indicators of meat of pigs the fed diets with different
leguminous seeds did not differ significantly from those of pigs fed the control
diet, except that lupine meal by 18.4 % (P<0.05) decreased the colour intensity
of the meat and tendend to increase the content of polyunsaturated linoleic and
linolenic acids in the backfat (P>0.1). Pigs fed the diets containing field beans
had 5.7–8.2 mm (P < 0.05) lower backfat thickness.
Key words: soybean, lupine, bean, pig growth, pork quality



ISSN 1392-6144
Animal Husbandry: Scientific Articles. 2010. 55. P. 41-58

UDK 636.4.084


Raimondas Leikus, Jūratė Norvilienė, Violeta Juškienė

Institute of Animal Science of LVA,
R. Žebenkos 12, LT-82317 Baisogala, Radviliškis distr., Lithuania


In 2004-2005 feeding trial with fattening pigs were carried out at the Institute of
Animal Science of LVA to determine the effect of higher content multienzyme
composition (α-amylase 70 U/g; units per gram, β-glucanase 700 U/g, xylanase
1800 U/g, protease 0.8 U/g) in the feed triticale based rations on the pork biological
value and quality.
The data from the trials indicated that mixing different amounts of multienzyme
composition into the compound feed containing 60-70 % of triticale had no
negative influence on the physicochemical indicators of pig meat and backfat,
except that higher levels of multienzyme composition tended to decrease water
holding capacity and colour intensity of meat. When the multienzyme composition
accounted for 0.075, 0.1 and 0.125 % in the diets, meat water holding capacity
was, respectively, 3.82 (P>0.2), 4.92 (P<0.001) and 4.95 % (P<0.001) lower
and colour intensity 23.8 (P>0.1), 15.7 (P>0.2) and 25.3 % (P<0.025) lower,
Supplementation of the diets with the multienzyme composition did not
have much influence on the intramuscular fat composition, except for 0.14
(P<0.01-0.05) and 0.68-1.46 % (P<0.025-0.05) higher contents of, respectively,
saturated miristic and palmitic acids at 0.035-0.05 % multienzyme composition
supplementation. 0.075 % multienzyme composition supplementation of the
diet inceased the content of polyunsaturated docosahexaenoic acid by 0.34 %
Supplementation of the diets with the multienzyme composition did not
have any significant influence on the backfat composition, except that 0.05
% supplementation increased the content of saturated miristic acid by 0.18 %
(P<0.005) whereas 0.125 % supplementation increased by 2.49 % (0.1>P>0.05)
the content pf saturated stearic acid and decreased the contents of monounsaturated
oleic and palmitoleic acids by 2.35 % (P<0.025) and 0.26 % (0.1>P>0.05),
Keywords: triticale, multienzyme composition, meat quality, fat quality, chemical composition of meat, fatty acid



ISSN 1392–6144
Animal Husbandry. Scientific Articles. 2010. 55. p. 59-68

UDK 636.2.084


Vidmantas Pileckas, Algirdas Urbšys, Jonas Kutra, Artūras Šiukščius

Institute of Animal Science of LVA,
R. Žebenkos str. 12, LT–82317 Baisogala, Radviliškis distr., Lithuania


The purpose of the study was to determine the differences in semen physiological
parameters from different ejaculations of the same stallion when the semen was
fresh and frozen and packaged into separate straws.
Every seven days semen was collected from stallion Kaukas and the assessment
of the main physiological responses of fresh and cryopreserved semen was carried
out. The average spermatozoa motility in fresh semen was 55±3.65 %. Out of six
evaluated ejaculations only 50 % met the requirements for cryopreservation. pH
value of the semen was always stable 7.25±0.04. One ejaculation on the average
resulted in 156±31.1 straws with cryopreserved stallion semen.
Morphological parameters of fresh semen ranged widely. The number of
intact spermatozoa per ejaculation ranged from 44 to 70 %. Tail pathology was
most common and accounted for 16.0±2.27 %. The number of spermatozoa with
head pathology reached 12 % in one of the ejaculates, i. e. their number exceeded
the total average more than twice. Neck pathology was found in 3.2±0.87 % of
Cryopreservation had no significant influence on the morphological parameters
of semen: the number of intact spermatozoa was lower yet insignificantly from
60.0±3.97 in the fresh semen to 51.7±3.07 % (P<0.05) in the frozen semen. The
changes in the spermatozoa motility in different straws with the frozen semen
from the same ejaculate were significant, i. e. from 5.9 to 8.7 % in ejaculate 1
(mean 7.8±0.93 %) (P > 0.5), from 9.1 to 16.7 % in ejaculate 2 (mean 11.8±2.47
%), from 18.7 to 24.5 % in ejaculate 3 (mean 21.7±1.68 %), from 10.3 to 13.1
% in ejaculate 4 (mean 11.4±0.87 %), from 7.4 to 17.9 % in ejaculate 5 (mean
12.3±3.06 %) and from 20 to 23.3 % in ejaculate 6 (mean 21.9±0.98 %).
The number of straws with the semen prepared from one ejaculate depends
on spermatozoa concentration and volume. Qualitative parameters of the
thawed semen differ in different ejaculations and in different straws of the same
ejaculation. Thus, semen quality assessment from one thawed straw cannot be
applied to the whole frozen semen batch.
Keywords: stallion, semen, ejaculate, quality



ISSN 1392–6144
Animal Husbandry: Scientific Articles. 2010. 55. P. 69-81

UDK 636.082


Danguolė Urbšienė, Algirdas Urbšys

Institute of Animal Science of Lithuanian Veterinary Academy, Baisogala, LT-82317 R. Zebenkos str. 12, Radviliskis distr., Lithuania


Study surveys controlled cow performance recording from control milking data
optimization trials carried out in 2003-2007.
In 2003-2004, the study of twice milking indicated that the coefficients, except
that of milk quantity estimation, were not affected by any of the physiological,
zootechnical or management factors. It has been found that the application of
the At method for the twice milking scheme allows to use milk yield estimation
coefficients (2.026 and 1.975) common to Lithuanian black and white and red
cow breeds during their p.m and a.m. control milking and the fat and protein yield
coefficients should equal 2.
In 2005-2006 production estimation coeficients applied for the a.m and p.m.
milkings were sufficiently accurate and in both cases the recalculation errors were
not higher than 1 kg or 5%. From practical viewpoint it was very important that
the functional dependency of the majority of coefficients on the milking intervals
had been found.
In 2007 more accurate average coefficient means and their functional dependency
on the interval between the control and previous milking improved the quality of the
approximated lactation curve that was calculated from the previous p.m. milking data.
New functional correction multipliers allowed to straighten the dependency of the absolute
error on the lactation phase. The analysis of all the studies carried out in 2003-2007
indicated that each time when the production recalculation coefficients for the
cows milk recorded using the At method were revised, more precise results were
Key words: cow productivity, milk recording methods, milking scheme



ISSN 1392-6144
Animal Husbandry: Scientific Articles. 2010. 55. P. 82-95

UDK 636.2.084


Rasa Nainienė, Artūras Šiukščius, Birutė Zapasnikienė

Institute of Animal Science of LVA,
R. Žebenkos 12, LT-82317 Baisogala, Radviliškis distr., Lithuania


In husbandry, modern reproduction biotechnologies are being used for the
enhancement of animal reproductive efficiency, for increasing the contribution
of genetically superior genotypes of males and females to the gene pool of the
population, for the introduction, improvement, and preservation of livestock
genetics. Artificial insemination has been created more then 60th years ago and
commercially utilized worldwide into breeding programs in dairy cattle, in which
the impact on genetic improvement has been greatest, but artificial insemination
is sheep breeding is not so widely adopted.
This review describes application of artificial insemination technologies (with
fresh, cooling, cryopreserved, sexed sperm) in sheep production and research.
Factors influencing the fertility results and inseminations methods (cervical,
transcervical, laparotomy. laparoscopy) used for improvement are discussed.
Key words: ram spermatozoa, cryopreservation, chilling, cervical and
intauterine insemination