"Animal Husbandry" Editorial Board Instructions

ISSN 1392-6144

Animal Husbandry. Scientific Articles, 2002, 40, p. 121



Lithuanian Veterinary Academy

S u m m a r y

The microscopic fungi become more active due to changes of farming condition. They attack the plants during their growth period and late continue their activities during the storage of grain in warehouses. The parasites so-called warehouses-fungi produce mycotoxins especially when the humidity of grain is increased. The grain containing high amount of humidity should be cleaned from weeds seeds and dried about up to 13% humidity. When there is no possibility to dry the grain, it is possible to protect them from mycotoxins by using chemical conservants. Preparation Shaumasil could be used. for this purpose. It makes a strong fungistatic and less ivestigated bacteriostatic effect. Conservation with this preparation stops production of mycotoxins (aflatoxins ochratoxins and others). There are much more microscopic fungi and their products in warehouses which has not been treated with conservants than in the warehouses, which has been treated with Shaumasil or any other conservants.
Keywords: grain, conservants, mycotoxins, microscopic fungi.



ISSN 1392-6144


Animal Husbandry. Scientific Articles, 2002, 40, p. 95


UDK 636.2.084.637.5



, Petras Bendikas


S u m m a r y


In 2001, two analogous groups of Lithuanian Black-and-White bull calves of 7 animals each were used in a trial on the experimental farm of the Lithuanian Institute of Animal Science. The animals in both groups were fed silage ad libitum in winter and green feeds in summer. Besides, each bull was offered 2.5 kg of compound feed daily and in winter 1.0 kg hay additionally. In winter the control compound feed contained 27% of rapeseed cake and the experimental feed 47% of field peas. In summer time, the corresponding figures were 7 and 12%. The trial indicated that different protein supplements had influence on the growth of bulls, economic efficiency and morphological composition of carcasses. The daily gain of bulls fed field peas was by 127 g (P<0.025) lower and the cost price of the consumed feeds per 100 kg gain was by 15.65% higher, the muscling score was lower (P<0.05) and the morphological composition of the carcass was also lower compared with the bulls fed rapeseed cake. There was no significant difference for the meat quality of bulls fed different protein supplements.

Key words: fattening bull calves, rapeseed cake, field peas, growth of bull calves, morphological composition of carcasses, meat quality.


ISSN 1392-6144


Animal Husbandry. Scientific Articles, 2002, 40, p. 114


UDK 636.2.085.633.2.631.55



Jonas Jatkauskas, Vilma Vrotniakienė


Lithuanian Institute of Animal Science




The aim of our experiment was to study fermentation quality and feeding value at the ensilaging of pre-wilted legume-grass mixture (dry matter (DM content 300 g kg-1) in big bales, ensilaging of maize (DM content 200 g kg-1) and combined ensilaging of maize with 15% of whole crop barley-oat-wetch mixture (DM content 280 g kg-1) in trenches.

All three types of silages was well preserved with the content of DM 308, 205 and 276 g kg-1, crude protein – 143.3, 78,8 and 116.1 g/kg DM, WSC – 21.1, 53.4 and 33.4 g/kg DM, pH – 4.6, 3.8 and 4.3, total organic acids – 36.2, 97.9 and 54.2 g/kg DM, lactic acid – 21.7, 67.6 and 54.2 g/kg DM. The digestibility in vivo coefficients of whole crop barley-oat-wetch and maize mixture silage diet were higher than these of the grass-legume silage or the maize silage diets: 72.1 vs. 69.5 and 67.6 for organic matter, 67.9 vs. 53.9 and 43.9 (P < 0.05, P < 0.001) for protein, 80.3 vs. 56.9 and 67.9 (P < 0.005, P < 0.01) for fat, 74.5 vs. 72.9 and 70.4 for fibre and 70.3 vs. 67.1 and 67.7 for NFE.

During the feeding trial (143 days) the bulls fed maize: whole crop mixture silage showed a greater growth compared to the bulls fed grass-legume silage or maize silage (1211 g/day vs. 1115 and 1100 g/day). Compound feed conversion rate were better in maize: whole crop silage group compared to grass-legume silage group or maize silage group 1.88 g/kg weight gain vs. 2.04 and 2.07 g/kg weight gain.

Key words: silage, fattening bulls, fermentation quality, nutritive value, grass, maize.


ISSN 1392-6144


Animal Husbandry. Scientific Articles, 2002, 40, p. 64


UDK 636.5.082.12


Polymorphic systems of blood serum protein of initial lines of a cross of laying hens

Robertas Juodka,


Lithuanian Institute of Animal Science




A study was conducted to determine the protein polymorphism of blood serum of the initial A, B, C and D lines of the laying cross Lohmann White LSL. The analysis of the genetic structure of the lines indicated the genetic differentiation with respect to individual allele frequency.

In all loci, except transferring, actual heterozygosity (Ho) was lower than theoretical (Hex).

The difference between the observed and expected heterozygosity in all lines was statistically significant by five genetic systems, where χ2 was higher than the maximum (3.84) at which the hypothesis of gene frequency could be rejected.

According to the unfermentable blood serum proteins, the highest genetic propinquity was determined, between the lines A and D, and C and D, and the lowest propinquity between the lines A and C, and B and C by the coefficient of genetic identity (Nei, 1972).

In the dendrogram, the lines from four separate clusters, and that supports the genetic differentiation of the tested lines.

Among the lines, the closiest were sire line A of the sire combination and dam line D of the dam combination, and also dam line B of the sire combination and sire line C of the dam combination.

Key words: laying birds, initial lines, analysis of the genetic structure of lines, actual and theoretical heterozygosity, genetic identity, genetic distance, dendrogram.


ISSN 1392-6144


Animal Husbandry. Scientific Articles, 2002, p. 147


UDK 636.4.083


The influence of insulated creep boxes with the adjustable size of opening on the growth of suckling pigs



Lithuanian Institute of Animal Science




The study was carried out with 167 suckling pigs on the experimental farm of the Lithuanian Institute of Animal Science (LIAS). The lying area for the experimental piglets was equipped with rectangular wooden boxes of 1.1 m2 area and the 0.19 m2 area of opening that was covered with a synthetic material. The piglets in the control group were heated with lamps from birth till weaning at 60days age. It has been determined that the temperature in the boxes was on the average by 6.7% higher than that in barn. The concentration of carbon dioxide was by 2.1 times higher than that in the barn, yet it did not exceed the standard requirements. The growth rate of both groups of piglets was similar.

Until 20 days of age, the opening of the creep box was covered and later uncovered, and such boxes provided a warm microenvironment for piglets, allowed to save approximately 300 kwh of electric energy per litter raising till weaning and had no negative influence on the growth and health of piglets.

Key words: creep box, suckling pigs, opening, curtain.


ISSN 1392-6144


Animal Husbandry. Scientific Articles, 2002, 40, p. 30


UDK 636.4.082



Ramutis Klimas,




In 1990-1997, stress-susceptibility of pigs of various breeds and its effect on the performance of pigs were studied with the help of the halothane test. The data indicate that among purebred pigs, Lithuanian White piglets were least stress-susceptible (11.0%), while Duroc (12.5%), Yorkshire (15.2-16.1%), Landrace (16.7-18.0%) and Hampshire (18.7%) piglets were more stress-susceptible. Commercial two-way crossbreeding indicated that Yorkshire and Landrace boars increased stress-susceptibility of pigs by, respectively, 1.5-4.2 and 8.5%, and Hampshire and Duroc boars had no negative influence on the stress-susceptibility of crossbreds in comparison with purebred Lithuanian Whites. The study has also indicated that boars (12.0-22.6%) were more stress-susceptible than gilts (7.7-15.5%). Stress-susceptible pigs have higher lean meat content, yet lower litter size, growth and fattening qualities. Meat and backfat quality of stress-susceptible pigs is lower than that of stress-resistant.

The main short coming of the halothane test is that heterozygous (Nn), progeny, carriers of the recessive gene, cannot be determined. Besides, this method can be applied only to 3-12 week-old piglets. It is physically difficult to test older piglets due to their higher weight. A more precise selection for lower stress-susceptibility could be carried out using the method of genetic markers which has been recently introduced in Lithuania and can be applied to pigs of various age.

Key words: halothane test, phenotype, genotype, pig breeds, reproductive, fattening and carcass traits, meat and backfat quality.


ISSN 1392-6144


Animal Husbandry. Scientific Articles, 2002, 40, p. 3


UDK 636.1.082




Lithuanian Institute of Animal Science


S u m m a r y


The development and implementation of the programme for the conservation of the žemaitukai horse breed was started in 1994.

The aim of this study was to evaluate and summarize the results of the programme in action and to plan the strategy for further development of the breed. Monitoring and analysis of the breed status indicated that implementation of the programme from 1994 till 2002 resulted in that žemaitukai breed has changed its status from critical to a risk one when the risk of breed extinction diminishes as the population is constantly increasing. Application of the circular mating scheme (designed by prof. J. Šveistys) in horse breeding has justified itself because pure-breeding could be carried out in a very small population without incest aftereffects. The summary of the results of the programme indicated that žemaitukai horses are preserved both in situ, by pure-breeding in four breeding herds and throughout the country, and ex situ, by freezing DNA and the semen.

The applied breeding strategy enabled to change the status of the breed from critical to endangered one. In order to develop the genealogical structure of the breed and to ensure conservation in situ, 82% of the Žemaitukai horses are found in the breeding herds where circular mating scheme is being applied and the development of the new stallion lines has been started.

The breed might find its prospects in many fields, i.e. working on family farms, in tourism, entertainment business, sports schools, museums, hipotherapy, training, scientific research, implementation of environmental programmes, improvement of other native horse breeds and export, etc.

Key words: conservation programme, the žemaitukai breed, monitoring, breed status, genealogical structure, breeding strategy.


ISSN 1392-6144


Animal Husbandry. Scientific Articles, 2002, 40, p. 85





Audronė Mankevičienė,


S u m m a r y


A study was conducted to determine the effect of zearalenone and that of the neutralizing product Toxy-Nil Plus Dry on the quantitative changes of viability and motility of spermatozoa. The diluted semen was evaluated at 160C every 24 hours. The results from the study indicated that spermatozoa viability of the boars fed zearalenone containing feed (3.62 mg daily) for five weeks decreased every week respectively by 9.6, 15.8, 20.7, 17.5 and 28.1% (P<0.001). After feed detoxication with Toxy-Nil Plus Dry, the above-mentioned indicators increased by, respectively, 2.4, 9.7, 10.3, 7.5 and 10.9% in comparison with the control group. The differences between the groups were significant. Similar results were obtained for the changes of the motility of spermatozoa. Spermatozoa motility was progressively lower the longer the boars were fed zearalenone contaminated feed. The most typical differences were determined at weeks 3 and 5 of chronic intoxication. Sperm motility at week 5 of chronic intoxication has decreased by 64.0% after 72 hours of incubation, but the spermatozoa survived for 312 hours. Application of Toxy-Nil Plus Dry increased the sperm motility after 72 h by 53.8% (P<0.001), yet the difference between the experimental and control groups accounted for 22% (P<0.01).

Sperm survival and motility indicators reached the level of the control group in a week’s time after exclusion of zearalenone and Toxy-Nil Plus Dry containing feed from the diet.

Key words: mycotoxins, zearalenone, boars, sperm viability, mycotoxin inhibitors.


ISSN 1392-6144


Animal Husbandry. Scientific Articles, 2002, 40, p. 73


UDK 636.2.082.591.3



, , , Artūras Šiukščius, Vidmantas Pileckas


S u m m a r y


A study was designed to investigate the effect of protein ingredient in the medium – fetal bovine serum (FBS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) – on bovine oocyte maturation, development and embryo culture in vitro.

The comparison of 10 and 25% FBS supplemented mediums for oocyte maturation and embryo culture in vitro indicated that lower (10%) concentration of FBS resulted in better maturation and development of oocytes, i.e. 66.6% of oocytes matured, 67.2% developed further and 13.3% of embryos reached the stage of morula and blastula. Addition of 25% FBS resulted in maturation of 44.6% of oocytes, further development of 52.4% of embryos and formation of 1.6% of morulas and blastulas.

The results from the study indicated that there was no difference in the effects of FBS produced by two different companies – “Sigma” and The Institute of Biochemistry. 68.1% and 63.7% of oocytes developed in the medium with 10% FBS produced, respectively, by “Sigma” and The Institute of Biochemistry.

The studies of the effects of FBS and BSA on the development of the embryos in vitro indicated that BSA had a positive influence on the first divisions of the embryos and the quality of embryos and, therefore, it can be used in the culture medium in place of FBS. 74% of oocytes developed in the BSA medium after fertilization and 14.8% of embryos reached the morula stage. 59.7% of oocytes successfully developed in the FBS medium, and 18.9% of embryos reached the morula stage. FBS has a higher positive effect on the embryos in their subsequent stages of development.

Key words: bovine embryos, fetal bovine serum, bovine serum albumin.


ISSN 1392-6144


Animal Husbandry. Scientific Articles, 2002, 40, p. 39


UDK 636.4.082






The pedigree analysis of purebred Lithuanian White pigs indicated that these pigs were bred by 19 breeding centres. Genealogically, the purebred Lithuanian White pig breed consists of 8 boar lines (n=74) and 17 sow families (n=1,930). The boars of Baravykas (24.32%), Maršalas (18.92%) and Imperatorius lines and sows from Drąsuolė (18.60%) Liūtė (17.56%), Dobilė (15.80%) and Rūta (12.69%) families are considered to be most widespread. The analysis of distribution of purebred Lithuanian White pigs indicated that some of the lines and families are bred at only one or two breeding centres that cannot secure the conservation of these lines and families, as the number of pigs of the breed falls down each year. Measures for improvement and conservation of purebred Lithuanian White pigs by using circular mating schemes have been worked out.

Key words: purebred Lithuanian White, boar lines, sow families.


ISSN 1392-6144


Animal Husbandry. Scientific Articles, 2002, 40, p. 48


UDK 636.4.082



Violeta Razmaitė




Crossing of Lithuanian White pigs with Duroc boars resulted in a lower prolificacy, but crossbred piglets were larger in size at birth and gained weight better by 14.6% till 60 days of age. There was a high positive correlation between weight at birth and weight at 21 days of age and also between weight at 21 days and 60 days of age both of Lithuanian White and crossbred piglets (P < 0.001). The average daily gain of crossbred pigs during control testing was by 82.2 g (P < 0.025) higher than that of purebred Lithuanian White, yet feed consumption per kg gain was by 0.51 FU lower (P < 0.001). Although the length of the carcass was almost similar, but the weight of ham was higher and carcass was leaner for crossbreed pigs. The average backfat thickness of crossbreds was also by 7.2 mm (P < 0.001) lower and the loin lean area was by 3.6 cm2 (P < 0.050) higher than those of Lithuanian White pigs.

Key words: commercial crossing, correlation, carcass.


ISSN 1392-6144


Animal Husbandry. Scientific Articles, 2002, 40, p. 22


UDK 636.1.082




S u m m a r y


Large-type Žemaitukai mares distinguish themselves in milk production: on the basis of daily weight gains of foals during their first month of growth, it has been determined that the average daily milk production of mares is 15.07 kg (11.9-20.9 kg). Mares produced on the average 2219 kg (1651-2901 kg) of milk in five lactation months. The mares of the large-type Žemaitukai breed are 17% more milk productive, than those of the light-type breeds, but 8.4% less productive than the mares of the heavy-draught breeds. However, large-type Žemaitukai mares produce on the average more milk per kg of their own body weight compared with the heavy-draught and light-type mares. Large-type Žemaitukai mares produced on the average 28.2 g of milk per kg of their own body weight, and by this indicator they surpassed heavy- (24.1 g) and light- (24.2 g) type mares, yet fell behind Žemaitukai (30.2 g) and Shetland pony (52.0 g) mares. The milk of large-type Žemaitukai mares had higher contents of fat (2.4%), protein (2.9%) and minerals (0.4%) in comparison with the corresponding data (1.0%, 2.1%, 0.3%) of other breeds.

Key words: body measurement, index, milk production and chemical composition, correlation coefficient.


ISSN 1392-6144


Animal Husbandry. Scientific Articles, 2002, 40, p. 104


UDK 636.2.084.085






In 2000-2001, twelve Lithuanian Black-and-White cows of average productivity were used in a trial designed at the Lithuanian Institute of Animal Science to determine the chemical composition, physical-chemical, biological and technological properties of milk of cows fed compound feed containing either rapeseed cake (20%) or soybean (Glycine max) meal (22%).

The results from the experiment indicated that there was no significant difference between the nutritive and energy values of milk of cows fed either rations containing rapeseed cake or soybean meal when the beans were pelleted at 1200C. As regards technological properties, the milk of all cows, irrespective of the ration composition, was more suitable for the production of pasteurized and canned milk than for cheese and butter production.

Key words: milk quality, rapeseed cake, soybean meal.



ISSN 1392-6144


Animal Husbandry. Scientific Articles, 2002, 40, p. 138


UDK 636.084.561.1




, , Raimondas Leikus


S u m m a r y


The studies were conducted at the Lithuanian Institute of animal Science to determine the balance of nutrients N, P and K, their conversion to livestock production and retention in manure as well as nitrogen losses under different cattle housing and feeding, manure handling technologies.

The data analysis of transition of feed nutrients into excrement indicated that cows, when kept in confinement in loose and stanchion barns, retention from feed was 72.4-81.2% of nitrogen, 74.7-71.6% of phosphorus and 92.0-86.2% of potassium for excrement. Retention of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium into excrement of calves till 8 months of age was respectively 83.9%, 68.6% and 96.7%. The average retention of nutrients into excrement of heifers from 9 to 27 months of age was 92.4% of nitrogen, 83.3% of phosphorus and 98.9% of potassium.

Low nitrogen emission factor due evaporation of ammonia (1.6±0.2%) was determined in the stanchion barns, while in the cold loose cow barns it was 4.4±1.2%, in the calf houses 11.8±1.8% and in the heifer houses 17.0±3.9%.

The data analysis of retention of feed nutrients into excretion indicated that fattening pigs, when kept on solid floor in barns, absorbed from the feeds 77.1% of nitrogen, 70.8% of phosphorus and 95.9% of potassium for excrement. Retention for nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium into excrement of weaners till 4 months of age was respectively 77.0-66.4%, 62.5-57.2% and 89.7-84.6%. The average retention of nutrients into excrement of gestating sows was 85,4%, of nitrogen, 86,0% of phosphorus and 96,3% of potassium. Retention for nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium into excrement of lactating sows with piglets was respectively 65.1%, 62.7% and 86.8%.           

Low nitrogen emission factor due evaporation of ammonia (7.6±2.3%) was determined in weaners barns with housing on slatted floor. In the warm loose weaners barns on the semi deep litter it was 14.5±2.4%, in the lactating sows houses, with limited amount of littering - 9.3±3.5% and in the gestating sows houses on the semi deep litter - 14.0±3.5%.

High nitrogen emission due evaporation of ammonia was determined in warm fattening pigs barns, where animals hold on slatted floor. Nitrogen emission was, respectively, 21.9±6.90%.

Key words: cattle houses, hog barns, ammonia emission, environment pollution.




ISSN 1392-6144


Animal Husbandry. Scientific Articles, 2002, 40, p. 56


UDK 636.3.082




Lithuanian Institute of Animal Science


S u m m a r y


In 1996-2001, reproductive traits of Lithuanian local coarswoled sheep were investigated at the Lithuanian Institute of Animal Science. A flock of the breed was established at the Institute for the conservation of its gene pool. Four pedigree rams and 12 ewes with their progeny were used in the study to determine the reproductive performance of local sheep.

In the above-mentioned period, our sheep lambed 52 times and produced 84 lambs. In 1996 - 1998, the fertility of ewes was 1.9 lambs, and the sheep were mated only once a year. White in 1999-2001, 65% of au sheep lambed every 6 to 9 months and dropped on the average 1.4 lambs that were by 0.3 kg heavier than the progeny of ewes lambing every 10-12 months.

More frequent lambing resulted in lambs with higher growth rate (the weight was higher by 0.6-3.0 kg in the different stages of age till 12 months) and more milk productive dams. On the other hand, frequently lambing sheep had more dead and miscarried embryos and their maintenance was more labour consuming.

Key words: Lithuanian local coarswoled sheep, reproductive traits, conformation, lambs, milk yield and chemical composition.